The Bridge - Page 4


Ringing the Changes in Krakow

Aleksandra Wrzesień

Zygmunts Bell rings out in Krakow, Krakow citizens have sounded out their approval over a new bell hanging up on the old defensive tower in royal castle on Wawel's hill.

The bell was commisioned by Zygmunt the old who dedicated it not only to God and Jagiellonian glory. The ball is quickly becoming one of the most important national symbols. Hans Behem of Norymverg inscribed the bell with the words " Dedicated to the Great and Holy God and well as to virgin mother of God and the Holy Patrons”

Zygmunt the King of Poland

According to legend , damage to the heart embossed on the bell heralds bad times for Polish , and according to popular superstition, touching the heart brings good luck . Legend has it that as long as the bell is hanging on the tower, nothing bad will happen to Krakow

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Private cardiological surgery.

Medical doctor Józef Struś – a doctor of philosophy and medicine.

As one of the first discussed at length the issue of the pulse in the life of a healthy and sick person. Professional measurements of heart rate and pulse.

Poznań, Marketplace 15

Medical examnations: Monday, Wednesday, Friday from noon.

Erasmus Exalts Poles

Agata Wilk , Trembecka Weronika

Rotterdam Philosopher Erasmus, wrote the following words to our homeland: “ Congratulations to this nation… which now in science, law morality, religion and everything that separates us from barbarism, is in such a bloom that can compete with the first and highest of all the countries.”

Barbara Radziwiłłówna

Barbara Radziwiłłówna Crowned

Barbara stepped forward to the altar. She knelt down, kissed the archbishop’s ring ,

whereupon she lay her body in the shape of a cross. Meanwhile all gathered began to recite lyrics of a prayer.

Hundreds of people resounded :” Kyrie elejson, Chryste elejson… “Celebrants solemnly called the most important women names from the Old Testament : Sara, Rebbeca , Judith and

Esthera. Thereafter Barbara was compared to sage wives and daughters instead the slave

married to Alexander the Great

Next, there were unction and coronation.

Barbara with the crown on her head, the royal apple and the scepter in hands, turned to the


That day she looked more attractive than ever. There wasn’t any trace of disease on her

face. She was young , proud and delicate: just a queen

The crowds in Krakow were wowed by her

expensive crown. Her clothes were decorated with hundreds of pearls, but the most could be

seen from her eyes and lips. Barbara smiled to the dignitaries who took part in the coronation.

Many people could say that this smile showed pride of the great aristocrat.

Some believed that,

Barbara, like her family, was absorbed by political lust. It’s hard to accept such a conception

because Barbara’s face was rather expressing a relief.

Despite her critical health condition, she survived a lot of processions and celebrations.


witnesses heard Barbara saying : “ God will give me another crown…”.

Not everyone was happy about the coronation of Barbara Radziwiłłówna. The Queen Mother Bona Sforza accussed her of promiscuous behavior and of using witchcraft or poison to seduce Sigismund Augustus. Certainly the senate did not approve of the marriage accusing the “Witch from Vilnius” of being her husbands lover while he was married to someone else, an adulteress as well as a social climber..

The marriage was discussed by the general sejm and the sessions were loud and rowdy. Nobles, including voivodes Piotr Kmita Sobieński, Jan Gabriel Tęczyński, and Piotr Boratyński pleaded the King to abandon the marriage and even threatened to take up arms. Sigismund Augustus refused and has threatened abdication.

Damian Żuraw