Solutions:

Here is the Solution to the Logical Puzzle

2/3 (not 1/2)

You know that you do not have Bag B (two black marbles) so there are three possibilities

You chose Bag A, first white marble. The other marble will be white

You chose Bag A, second white marble. The other marble will be white

You chose Bag C, the white marble. The other marble will be black

So 2 out of 3 possibilities are white.

Why not 1/2? You are selecting marbles, not bags.

The Answer to the Logical Twister is:

Light both ends of rope A and one end of rope B. After 30 minutes, rope A will be completely burned up and there will be 30 minutes of rope B left. Light the other end of rope B; it will burn up in 15 minutes. Total time elapsed since starting the ropes on fire: 45 minutes.