Figure 2: Scaredy Squirrel’s schedules from Scaredy Squirrel (Watt, 2009),
Figure 3: Student example of elapsed time schedule of a
A list of related books about elapsed time is included in Appendix A. These books could be read aloud to students to further explore this concept as students are encouraged to make connections to their own lives, thus making the mathematical skill more relevant and memorable.
Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers grades 3-6: Teaching
comprehension, genre, and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Appendix A: Books to Read Aloud About Elapsed Time:
Axelrod, A. (1998). Pigs on a blanket: Fun with math and time. New York: Aladdin.
The pigs are headed to the beach, but don’t set out until late and many things happen along the way making their time at the beach very limited. Readers can figure out the elapsed time while reading the story as time clues are given along the way.
Keenan, S. (1999). What time is it? A book of math riddles. New York: Scholastic.
Riddles of what time it is and elapsed time riddles abound in this book.
Watt, M. (2008). Scaredy Squirrel. New York: Scholastic.
Scaredy Squirrel makes a chart of his day before and after he sets out into the world, so when he is very scared (before) and once he becomes a bit brave (after). Students could follow the model and create their own daily routine.
Dr. Kathy Everts Danielson is a professor in the Teacher Education Department of the University of Nebraska at Omaha where she teaches undergraduate and graduate literacy classes. She has written articles for various literacy journals and has presented at national conferences such as NCTE and ILA.