The Missouri Reader Vol. 42, Issue 1 - Page 33

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Lipson, M.Y., Mosenthal, J.H., Mekkelsen, J., & Russ, B. (2004). Building knowledge and fashioning success one school at a time. The Reading Teacher, 57, 534-542.

Madda, C. L., Griffo, V. B., Pearson, P.D., & Raphael, T.E. (2011). Balance in compre-

hensive literacy instruction. In Best Practices in Literacy Instruction , 4th edition.

Morrow, L. M., & Gambrell, L.B. (Eds). NY: The Guilford Press. McCormick, S. & Zutell, J. (2015). Instructing Students Who Have Literacy Problems, 7th edition. Boston: Pearson.

Miller, D. (2012). Creating a classroom where readers flourish. The Reading Teacher, 66(2), 88-92.

Morrow, L., Kunz, K., & Hall, M. (2018). Breaking Through the Language Arts Block. New York:Guilford.

National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) (2006). NCTE Principles of Adolescent Literacy Reform: A Policy Research Brief.

Ogle. D., & Beers, J.W. (2012). Engaging in the Language Arts: Exploring the Power of Language, 2nd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Pressley, M. (1998). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. Guilford Press.

Pressley, M., Allington, R.L., Wharton-McDonald, R., Collins-Block, C., & Morrow, L. (2001). Learning to read: Lessons from exemplary fourth-grade classrooms. New York: Guilford.

Tomlinson, C.A. (2005). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tompkins, G.E. (2010). Literacy in the Middle Grades. Boston: Pearson.

Vacca, R.J. , Vacca, J.L. & Mraz, M. (2014). Content Area Reading: literacy and learning across the curriculum, 11th edition.New York: Allyn Bacon.

Dr. Harry Mecurio is an elementary teacher in the West Chester Area School District in West Chester, Pennsylvania. He is also an Affiliate Faculty Member in the Loeb School of Education at Eastern University in St. David's, Pennsylvania.

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In order to ensure that instructional time is wisely used to meet the learning requirements of students, upper elementary instruction needs two components: effective teachers and a clearly articulated daily literacy block along with literacy embedded within the content areas.