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greater general knowledge of target popula- tion. Expanding the study to include urban and high minority schools will increase generaliz- ability of findings. 2) Define childhood and adolescent VFL refer- ence ranges. The BIA used (InBody 570) mea- sures VFL between T1-T12 vertebrae. Threshold for adults is 100 cm 2 . Other countries have done research to define VFL reference ranges. To better identify metabolic risk, a defined childhood/ado- lescent reference range is paramount. 3) Record additional anthropometrics, e.g. blood pressure and waist circumference. Having more information won’t lengthen the data collec- tion process by much, and the additional data will provide a better idea of where a participant is in reference to metabolic syndrome. REFERENCES 1. Weight status of children based on Body Mass In- dex for age (BMI-for-age), Nationwide vs. Arkansas, Overweight or Obese x Age Groups, 10-17 years. National Survey of Children’s Health; 2016. http:// www.childhealthdata.org/browse/survey/results?q =4568&r=5&r2=5&g=610&a=6962. 2. Mendo-Lázaro S, Polo-del-Río M, Amado-Alonso D, Iglesias-Gallego D, León-del-Barco B. Self- Concept in Childhood: The Role of Body Image and Sport Practice. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017;8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00853 3. Obesity in Children and Teens. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry; 2016. http://www. aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_ for_Families/FFF-Guide/Obesity-In-Children-And- Teens-079.aspx. 4. Lowes J, Tiggemann M. Body dissatisfaction, dieting awareness and the impact of parental influence in young children. British Journal of Health Psychology. 8(2):135-147. doi:10.1348/135910703321649123 5. Torres-McGehee T, Monsma E, Dompier T, Wash- burn S. Eating disorder risk and the role of cloth- ing in collegiate cheerleaders’ body images. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012;47:541-548. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-47.5.03 Figure 3. Mean Body Image Dissatisfaction, Visceral Fat Level, and Health Related Quality of Life Quartile Scores Figure 5. BID by gender. 256 • THE JOURNAL OF THE ARKANSAS MEDICAL SOCIETY 6. Shah R, Murthy V, Abbasi S, et al. Visceral adiposity and the risk of metabolic syndrome across body mass index. Cardiovascular Imag- ine. 2014;7(12):1221-1235. doi:10.1016/j. jcmg.2014.07.017 7. Freedman D, Mei Z, Srinivasan S, Berenson G, Dietz W. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and ado- lescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatrics. 2007;150(1):12-17. 8. Lifshitz F. Obesity in children. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2008;1(2):53-60. 9. Arterburn D, Maciejewski M, Tsevat J. Impact of morbid obesity on medical expenditures in adults. International Journal of Obesity. 2005;29(3):334-339. 10. Trasande L, Chatterjee S. The impact of obesity on health service utilization and costs in child- hood. Obesity. 2009;17(9):1749-1754. Figure 4. BMI z-score and body-image dissatisfaction BID of the sample population. Figure 6. Percentile scores of HRQoL by dimensions, gender. VOLUME 115