COMMON GRAMMAR & STYLE ISSUES
Affect / Effect
“Affect”—Is a verb meaning “to influence”:
Attitude affects performance.
“Effect”—Is a noun meaning “result”:
Overall, the effects of the workshop were very positive.
Farther / Further
“Farther”—Relates to physical distance:
Public Safety is housed farther down Barclay Circle.
“Further”—Is a definition of degree:
We’re taking health one step further.
“Lay”—Takes a direct object:
Just lay the paper on my desk.
The past tense is laid:
He laid the paper on my desk.
“Lie”—Is the act of reclining in a horizontal position:
I need to lie down.
The past tense is “lay”:
I asked the patient to lay face down on the table.
The present participle version is “lying”:
He is lying down.
“Lie”—Also means not telling the truth. Past tense is “lied.” Present
participle is “lying.”
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