Revista de Medicina Desportiva (English) March 2018 - Page 20

contact of the foot with diverse ground. In short, the inclusion of equilibrium training and exercises that challenge neuromuscular con- trol will allow the prevention of knee and ankle injuries. bending of the torso does not serve the needs of the players and can increase the risk of injury in the lum- bar spine. 17 There is already a set of different exercises that allows effec- tive training of the musculature of the Core, for example, the Pallof Press, the squat, the lift, among others. Core Training Tse et al. (2005) refer to the Core as the set of pelvic and torso muscles (Figure 3), responsible for maintain- ing the stability of the spine and the pelvis, which are critical to the transfer of energy from the torso to the extremities. 16 It stands out a set of muscles predominantly made up of slow, deeper fibers that have Venue action, such as the transverse of the abdomen, the multifidus, the small oblique, the transverse abdomen, the diaphragmatic mus- cles and the muscles of the pelvic pavement, and a more superficial musculature with a higher propor- tion of fast fibers. In this last group, we identified the large oblique, the rectum abdominal and the erectors of the spine. They also include, as constituents of the Core, the muscles of the hip region, notably the gluteus medium and maximum. The mus- cles identified, whether from the trunk or the hip region, will have to be strong and functional to give sta- bility to the center. The preservation of this stability of the central region of the trunk will then be essential for the smooth functioning of the lower extremities. In football, the typical often prescribed exercise of successive Plyometrics Training In most sport movements, and in football is no exception, the mus- cles do not work purely concentric, eccentric or isometric, but function in a stretching-shortening muscle cycle. After the muscle stretching there is the shortening phase (an example of race or jump). That is, the stretching-shortening muscular cycle and it is characterized by the production of a potent concentric dynamic action that is immediately preceded by an eccentric dynamic action of the same muscle and is trainable through plyometric exer- cises. The goal of plyometrics train- ing is to decrease the time between the end of the eccentric muscular contraction and the beginning of the concentric contraction. This type of training aims to confer the ability to train specific movement patterns, by strengthening the muscle, tendon and ligament in a more functional manner. In this way, associated with agil ity training, plyometrics will have an important action in prevent- ing ligament lesions in the knee and ankle. 18 On the other hand, plyomet- rics allows to improve the values obtained in the vertical jump, speed and muscle power in the football play- ers. 19 Certainly, this increase in the strength values will allow to improve the economy of effort and allevi- ate the likeli- hood of injury. Use of the myofascial release before training or competition For the self – myofascial release therapeutic rollers have been used, or Foam Rollers, which are simple to use and dispense external aid. This method of flexibility training reduces fascial adhesions, prevents and fixes muscle shortenings, con- tributes to the correction of postural changes and allows the improve- ment of the range of motion and strength. 20.21 It is reported that the pressure applied by the therapeutic roll will disable the nodule by stimu- lating the tendon organs of Golgi, in a process called autogenic inhibi- tion In this way, you can restore the myofascial system , eliminating the proprioceptive mechanisms that trigger pain/dysfunction. 5 Football players will be able to apply the myofascial release tech- niques In muscle groups where there are muscle nodules or adhe- sions, in the warm-up phase, before cardiorespiratory work or in the phase of cool down. At this point, the goal will be to minimize delayed onset muscle soreness 22 , and it is advisable to use with low intensity. Importance of Warm-up The warm-up should precede the fundamental part and, among other benefits, will allow increasing the body temperature, the extensibil- ity of the connective tissue and the blood flow to the cardiac muscle and the muscles requested. In addi- tion to the possible inclusion of the myofascial release, the warm-up should include a general part that will include general exercises, mul- tiplanar, such as race, side race, for example, and a specific part already with exercises oriented to the main task. 18 Here you can include balance, plyometrics and muscle activation exercises. Conclusions Figure 3 – Core muscles Ref. 18 march 2018 The identification of risk factors and the most prevalent injuries in foot- ball players will allow the clinician a more targeted approach to injury prevention. This should be holistic