Revista de Medicina Desportiva (English) March 2018 - Page 18

Topic 2

Revista Medicina Desportiva informa , 2018 ; 9 ( 2 ): 16-19 .

Injury prevention in football : scientific bases and applicability

Prof . Doutor Rodrigo Ruivo 1 , Prof . Doutor Valter Pinheiro 2 , Prof . Doutor Jorge A . Ruivo 3
1
Physical Exercise Specialist , Clínica das Conchas ; 2 Physical Exercise Specialist , Department of Sports Sciences of the Higher Institute of Educational Sciences ; TOCOF methodology ; 3 Sports Medicine , Clínica das Conchas . Lisbon
ABSTRACT
Football has high participation rates not only in Portugal but throughout the entire world . Despite the many benefits associated with its practice , the prevalence of injuries in adults and adolescents is increasing . In this way , it is justified to adopt preventive strategies in order to ensure the safety and optimum musculoskeletal health of all players . A set of strategies for injury prevention in soccer players will be presented in a structured form . Reference will be made to the importance of core training , balance training , plyometric training , myofascial release techniques and respect for ideal functional strength ratios .
KEYWORDS
Football , injuries , prevention
Introduction
Football is the most popular and practised sport in the world , and Portugal is no exception . The practice of football carries many benefits , whether physical , psychological or social . However , because it is a sport in which contact , or collision can occur there is a risk of injury . Given the high participation rates , the prevalence of adult and adolescent injuries is increasing . 1 In this way , efforts are needed to prevent injury and ensure the safety and optimal musculoskeletal health of all players .
Recent studies have evaluated the incidence of injuries in football players during a sports season , and have classified these injuries as to their type , location and severity . 1 . 2 For example , in a study by Brito et al . ( 2012 ) 674 Young Portuguese players were evaluated during a sports season and 191 of them recorded an episode of injury , that is , approximately 29 % of the total participants . Most of the lesions occurred in the lower train , more precisely in the thigh ( 30 %), ankle ( 18 %) and knee ( 13 %). 1 These data are in accordance with those obtained by Ekstrand ( 2011 ), only with the difference of the latter having reported more knee injuries than on the ankle , 18 vs . 14 % respectively , while the thigh once again was the most reported place with 23 % of the total lesions . 2 In relation to the type of lesion , the most common are the muscular lesions , especially in the posterior muscles of the thigh , followed by the ligament lesions , such as the anterior cruciate ligament ruptures or lesions of the ankle ligaments after a sprained ankle , and contusions injuries . Lesions such as pain and pubalgia also occur with relative frequency and it is important to prevent .
Some studies have already demonstrated that with a multifactorial prevention approach , the rate of injury in football can be reduced . 3 ( Heidt et al . ( 2000 ) randomly selected 42 football players from a group of 300 players and applied in the experimental group a training program before the start of the season for seven weeks . The program combined specific exercises to improve the cardiorespiratory condition , plyometric training , strength training and flexibility . At the end of the sports season , only 14 % of the players were injured , contrasting with the 34 % of the control group .
Considering that the injury rate in football players is high and that a reasoned multifactorial intervention can prevent injury , this article aims to present a set of strategies for preventing injuries in the football player . In fact , the role of the team Doctor is pivotal in the preventive process and it should be articulated with the other professionals ( exercise specialists , physiotherapists , coach ).
Literature Review
The optimization of injury prevention in the football player requires , in addition to the domain of the specificity of sports modality and of the main associated injuries , a thorough knowledge of the individual characteristics of each player ( clinical history , musculoskeletal and functional post-evaluation data and training principles for proper training periodization ). Then it will be reported some of the strategies to be adopted in order to be able to prevent sports injuries and necessarily to optimize the sports performance of a football player , namely :
Functional evaluation
To effectively be able to prescribe corrective exercises or optimize sports performance , complementary to the technical-tactical football training , we will have to evaluate the athlete . One of the evaluations that should be carried out is the dynamic posture evaluation . A possible test to perform is the Overhead Squat ( Figure 1 ), in which the analysis of the quality of the movement in the anterior , lateral and posterior view allows to collect important data , such as : varus or valgus of the knees , maintenance or not of the trunk in neutral position , elevation or not of the heel , etc . 5
Another test battery that you can use is the Functional Movement Screening ( FMS ) ( Figure 2 ). This set of tests aims to assess the quality of the fundamental movement patterns so that the athlete can be identified as a predetermined limitations or asymmetry . FMS includes seven tests that are quoted on an ordinal scale of 0 to 3 . The seven tests are : squat , transpose an obstacle , lunges , shoulder mobility , active hip flexion in supine position , push-up and stability in rotation . 6
16 march 2018 www . revdesportiva . pt
Revista Medicina Desportiva informa, 2018; 9(2):16-19. Injury prevention in football: scientific bases and applicability Prof. Doutor Rodrigo Ruivo 1 , Prof. Doutor Valter Pinheiro 2 , Prof. Doutor Jorge A. Ruivo 3 1 Physical Exercise Specialist, Clínica das Conchas; 2 Physical Exercise Specialist, Department of Sports Sciences of the Higher Institute of Educational Sciences; TOCOF methodology; 3 Sports Medicine, Clínica das Conchas. Lisbon ABSTRACT Football has high participation rates not only in Portugal but throughout the entire world. Despite the many benefits associated with its practice, the prevalence of injuries in adults and adolescents is increasing. In this way, it is justified to adopt preventive strategies in o &FW"FV7W&RFR6fWG@FVW67V6VWFVFbW'26WBb7G&FVvW2f"W'&WfVF666W"W'2v&R&W6VFVB7G'V7GW&VBf&&VfW&V6Rv&RFRFFR'F6Rb6&RG&r&6RG&rǖWG&2G&rזf66&VV6RFV6VW2B&W7V7Bf"FVgV7F7G&VwF&F2ऴUt$E0fF&W&W2&WfVFखG&GV7FfF&2FR7BV"@&7F6VB7'BFRv&B@'GVv2W6WFFR&2ЧF6RbfF&6'&W2&VЦVfG2vWFW"6676vЦ6"66vWfW"&V6W6RB07'Bv66F7B"6Ɨ6667W"FW&R2&6bW'vfVFRv'F6F&FW2FR&WfV6RbGVBBFW2Ц6VBW&W227&V6rF0vVff'G2&RVVFVBF&WfV@W'BV7W&RFR6fWG@FW67V6VWFVF`W'2&V6VB7GVFW2fRWfVFV@FR6FV6RbW&W2fF&W'2GW&r7'G26V6@fR676fVBFW6RW&W22FFV"GR6FB6WfW&G f"WR7GVG''&FWBࢃ#"csBVr'GVwVW6RЦW'2vW&RWfVFVBGW&r7'G06V6BbFV&V6&FVBW6FRbW'FB2&ЦFVǒ#RbFRFF'F6G27BbFRW6267W'&VBFPvW"G&&R&V66VǒFPFv3RRRBVP2RFW6RFF&R66&F6PvFF6R'FVB'V7G&@#ǒvFFRFffW&V6R`FRGFW"fr&W'FVB&PVRW&W2FFRRb&6#wwr&WfFW7'Ff@g2BR&W7V7FfVǒvRFRFv6Rvv2FR7B&W'FV@6RvF#2RbFRFFW62 &VFFFRGRbW6FP7B6&RFRW67V W62W7V6ǒFR7FW& W66W2bFRFvfvVB'FRƖvVBW627V62FPFW&"7'V6FRƖvVB'WGW&W0"W62bFRRƖvVG0gFW"7&VBRB6GRЧ62W&W2W627V62BV&v667W"vF&VFfPg&WVV7BB2'FBF&WfVB6R7GVFW2fR&VGFVЦ7G&FVBFBvFVFf7F&&WfVF&6FR&FR`W'fF&6&R&VGV6VB0VGBWB#&Fǐ6VV7FVBC"fF&W'2g&Цw&Wb3W'2BƖV@FRWW&VFw&WG&Цr&w&&Vf&RFR7F'BbFP6V6f"6WfVvVV2FR&Цw&6&VB7V6f2WW&66W2F&fRFR6&F&W7&F'6FЧFǖWG&2G&r7G&VwFG&rBfW&ƗGBFRVB`FR7'G26V6ǒBRbFPW'2vW&RW&VB6G&7FpvFFR3BRbFR6G&w&W66FW&rFBFRW'&FPfF&W'22vBF@&V6VBVFf7F&FW'fVЧF6&WfVBW'F2'F6P2F&W6VB6WBb7G&FVvW0f"&WfVFrW&W2FRfF&W"f7BFR&RbFRFVФF7F"2fFFR&WfVFfP&6W72BB6VB&R'F7VFV@vFFRFW"&fW762WW"Ц66R7V6Ɨ7G26FW&7G266ƗFW&GW&R&WfWpFRF֗FbW'&WfVЧFFRfF&W"&WV&W2FFFFFRFbFP7V6f6Gb7'G2FƗG@bFR766FVBW&W2F&VvvVFvRbFRFЧfGV6&7FW&7F72bV6W 6Ɩ67F'W67V6VWFBgV7F7BWfVFFFBG&r&6W2f"&W G&rW&FFFVBv&R&W'FVB6RbFR7G&FVvW2F&RFFVB&FW"F&R&RF&RЧfVB7'G2W&W2BV6W76&ǐFF֗RFR7'G2W&f&6PbfF&W"VǓgV7FWfVFFVffV7FfVǒ&R&RF&W67&&R6"Ч&V7FfRWW&66W2"F֗R7'G0W&f&6R6VVF'FFPFV66F7F6fF&G&rvRvfRFWfVFRFRFWFRRbFRWfVF2FB6V@&R6'&VBWB2FRG֖27GW&PWfVF76&RFW7BFW&f&Ц2FRfW&VB7VBfwW&Rv6FRǗ62bFRVƗG`FRfVVBFRFW&"FW&B7FW&"fWrw2F6V7@'FBFF7V63f'W2 fwW2bFRVW2FV6R BbFRG'VWWG&6FVWfF"BbFRVVWF2PFW"FW7B&GFW'FBR6W6R2FRgV7FfVVB67&VVЦrd2fwW&R"F26WBbFW7G02F76W72FRVƗGbFPgVFVFfVVBGFW&06FBFRFWFR6&RFVFЦfVB2&VFWFW&֖VBƖ֗FF0"7WG'd26VFW26WfVFW7G2FB&RVFVB&F66RbF2FR6WfVFW7G2&S7VBG&76R'7F6RVvW26VFW"&ƗG7FfRfWখ7WR6FW6WB7FЦ&ƗG&FF