Revista de Medicina Desportiva (English) July 2018 - Page 8

Accord- ing to the authors, the COSI Portugal is a childhood nutrition surveillance system, integrated in the study Childhood Obesity Sur- veillance Initiative of the World Health Organization for Europe (COSI/WHO Europe), and its main Objective is to create a systematic network for the col- lection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of descriptive information on the characteristics of the child’s nutritional status of the school-age children of the primary school, from 6 to 8 years. They refer that “the first round of data collec- tion took place in the school year of 2007/2008, 13 countries participated in the second round (2009/2010), and in the third round (2012/2013) 19 countries of Europe. In the fourth round (2015/2016) of the COSI/ WHO Europe, 35 European countries participated in the study, out of the 40 already registered”. In Portugal, this program is coordinated by the National Institute of Health Doctor Ricardo Jorge, in cooperation with other medical Portuguese institu- tions, the Direção-Geral de Saúde and Regional Health Administra- tions. In this study there is a great concern about the juvenile obesity, which is the most prevalent pae- diatric disease in the world and an important risk factor for many dis- eases, with social implications, like “discrimination, social isolation and low self-esteem, which will imme- diately affect health, education and quality of life”. But the problem is even greater, since in the introduc- tion it is written that “more than 60% of obese children will be obese adults”. Uppsss!... In this study, which is based “in the model of descriptive epidemi- ology, with repeated cross-cutting samples of evaluation of the nutri- tional status of children from pri- mary schools in Portugal”, the evalu- ation included “6745 children with 6 (27.1%), 7 (49.4%) and 8 (23.6%) years of age, from 230 schools”. 6 july 2018 www.revdesportiva.pt Based on the WHO criteria, COSI Portugal 2016 presented the follow- ing prevalences: • 0.9% of children had low weight • 30.7% excess weight • 11.7% obesity. The higher prevalences of excess weight and of obesity were found in rural areas, and the higher preva- lence for low-weight was identified in the suburban regions. Between the evaluations of 2008 and 2016 it was found the decrease on the prevalence of excess weight (from 37.9% to 30.7%, less 7.2%), and with the obesity as well (from 15.3% to 11.7%, less 3.6%). As far as far Child Food is con- cerned, some findings are indicated: • 96.5% of children had breakfast daily • There was a daily consumption of · N  onfat or half-fat milk (72.9% vs. 4.2% fat milk) · Meat and fish (17.3 and 9.8%) · Fruit (63.3%) · Vegetable soup (56,6%) · legumes (37,7%). • Consumption, at least 1 to 3 times/week, was · 7  5,1% for the sweet biscuits/bis- cuits, cakes and donuts · 8  6,8% for candy, gums or choco- lates · 65,3% for sugary soft drinks · 8  8.7% for pizzas, french fries, hamburgers, sausages · 8  3.3% for package chips, puffs, popcorn. Physical activity / exercise Physical activity represents all the movement that is carried out throughout the day and it includes walking, climbing stairs, washing the car or gardening. Walking to the by foot, for example, can be a daily portion of physical activity. However, this study revealed that to go to school • 76.6% of children went by car, • 17.5% was walking or biking bike, • 5.9% went by both foot/bicycle and motor vehicles. The results make some sense, since 64.1% of parents considered the way to school as insecure. Sports clubs are still a very important place for this health promotion component, where 52.5% the children attended them and, of these, 60.3% attended were there for one to three hours / week. But they also played outside home, from one hour / day (35.3%) to two hours / day (34,3%) during the week days, but at the weekend 66.3% of children play three or more hours a day outside home. Almost all schools (98.6%) pro- vided physical education classes, as well as most (1 st year – 65.1%; 2 nd year – 64.3%) provides 90 or more minutes per week. Hours of sleep and time on the computer Most children (71.5%) reported sleeping more than nine hours a day. More than half of the children (59.1%) were on the computer about of one hour a day, whereas during the weekend the use of the com- puter to play electronic games rose to two or more hours. Food supply in schools Fruit juices and other sugary bever- ages could be found at 16.1% of the schools. The most available foods found was: water (85%), plain milk and/or yogurt (74.1%), fresh fruit (66.5%) and vegetables (41.5%). To conclude This study was carried out in schools on children aged between 6 and 8 years old and it represents an excellent portrait of the Portuguese reality in this age group. It can be seen that there is still a lot of food correction to make, the children maintain fairly reasonable levels of activity / physical exercise, they sleep an adequate number of hours and already spent many hours of their life in front of a computer. It is demonstrated that sports clubs are excellent agents for promoting physical exercise, but the schools do not adequately meet their nutri- tional educational function, because they do not provide adequate vegetables and fruits and there are still many soft drinks available. However, we are improving, since between 2008 and 2018 it was found a decrease on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, but there is still a lot of work to be done for the implementation and sedimentation of good health habits. Full text in www.revdesportiva.pt Basil Ribeiro