Revista de Medicina Desportiva (English) July 2018 - Page 23

• Muscle anabolism and anti-catabolism 33
• Decreased on muscle damage
30 . 31
parameters ( CK and LDH )
• Reduction on the perception of pain and muscular fatigue , by reducing serotonin , ammonia and
31 , 32 lactate levels
• Improvement of the muscle recovery 30
• Improvement on sports performance , ensuring greater intensity
30 , 31
and endurance in training
• Raising of plasma levels of glutamine 34
• Improvement of immune
33 , 35
response
• Anti-aging 36 .
d ) Clinical applications
Oxidation of BCAA occurs during organic or traumatic stress , reducing their availability to the tissues . Therefore , supplementation with BCAA has been pointed out as a nutritional strategy with several clinical applications 29 :
• Ageing , through the support of mitochondrial biogenesis in the cardiac and skeletal muscle and prevention of oxidative damage 36
• Malnutrition and sarcopenia 37
• Hepatic pathology , such as cirrhosis , hepatic encephalopathy ,
35 , 37
among other
• Trauma , sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome ( SIRS ) 38
• Obesity and insulin resistance 36
• Renal and cardiac failure 36
• Regeneration of wounds 36
• Pulmonary infections and COPD 36 .
e ) Side effects Supplementation with BCAA proved to be safe and unrelated to relevant adverse effects , although this issue was not extensively studied by the scientific community
36 , 37
.
Conclusion
Daily recommended intake of protein ( 0,8g / kg / day ) does not apply to the needs of the active population . As such , hyperprotein diets constitute an excellent method to improve body composition , metabolic profile and disease prevention in active individuals . Associated with the physical exercise , they are fundamental for the maintenance or increase of muscle mass and reduction of adipose tissue , among other benefits . The metabolism of these diets proved to be safe and physiologically possible without injury to any target systems , such as renal , hepatic , locomotion and cardiovascular . Protein supplementation with whey Casein and BCAA , despite the different individual protocols , has proven to be an effective ally to achieve daily protein requirements , with numerous health benefits and no relevant associated side effects .
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest ’ s .
Correspondence
André Filipe Oliveira Cabrita a30423 @ fcsaude . ubi . pt Rua de Valdante n º 35 ; 4805-074 Brito – Guimarães , Portugal .
Bibliography
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12 . Toedebusch RG , Childs TE , Hamilton SR , Crowley JR , Booth FW , Roberts MD . Postprandial leucine and insulin responses and toxicological effects of a novel whey protein hydrolysate-based supplement in rats . J Int Soc Sports Nutr [ Internet ]. 2012 ; 9 ( Suppl 1 ): P30 . Available from : http :// jissn . biomedcentral . com / articles / 10.1186 / 1550-2783-9-S1-P30
13 . Moreno M , de Souza GI , Hachul AC , dos Santos B , Okuda M , Neto NI , et al . Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet . Nutr Metab ( Lond ) [ Internet ]. 2014 ; 11 ( 1 ): 15 . Available from : http :// nutritionandmetabolism . biomedcentral . com / articles / 10.1186 / 1743-7075-11-15
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Revista de Medicina Desportiva informa july 2018 · 21
• Muscle anabolism and anti-catab- olism 33 • Decreased on muscle damage parameters (CK and LDH) 30.31 • Reduction on the perception of pain and muscular fatigue, by reducing serotonin, ammonia and lactate levels 31,32 • Improvement of the muscle recov- ery 30 • Improvement on sports perfor- mance, ensuring greater intensity and endurance in training 30,31 • Raising of plasma levels of glu- tamine 34 • Improvement of immune response 33,35 • Anti-aging 36 . fundamental for the maintenance or increase of muscle mass and reduc- tion of adipose tissue, among other benefits. The metabolism of these diets proved to be safe and physi- ologically possible without injury to any target systems, such as renal, hepatic, locomotion and cardiovas- cular. Protein supplementation with whey Casein and BCAA, despite the different individual protocols, has proven to be an effective ally to achieve daily protein requirements, with numerous health benefits and no relevant associated side effects. d) Clinical applications Oxidation of BCAA occurs during organic or traumatic stress, reduc- ing their availability to the tissues. Therefore, supplementation with BCAA has been pointed out as a nutritional strategy with several clinical applications 29 : • Ageing, through the support of mitochondrial biogenesis in the cardiac and skeletal muscle and prevention of oxidative damage 36 • Malnutrition and sarcopenia 37 • Hepatic pathology, such as cir- rhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, among other 35,37 • Trauma, sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) 38 • Obesity and insulin resistance 36 • Renal and cardiac failure 36 • Regeneration of wounds 36 • Pulmonary infections and COPD 36 . André Filipe Oliveira Cabrita a30423@fcsaude.ubi.pt Rua de Valdante nº35; 4805-074 Brito – Guimarães, Portugal. e) Side effects Supplementation with BCAA proved to be safe and unrelated to relevant adverse effects, although this issue was not extensively stud- ied by the scientific community. 36,37 Conclusion Daily recommended intake of pro- tein (0,8g/kg/day) does not apply to the needs of the active popula- tion. As such, hyperprotein diets constitute an excellent method to improve body composition, meta- bolic profile and disease prevention in active individuals. Associated with the physical exercise, they are The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest’s. Correspondence Bibliography 1. Maughan RJ. Quality Assurance Issues in the Use of Dietary Supplements, with Special Reference to. Jounal Nutr. 2013; 143:1843S–1847S. 2. Sousa M, Fernandes MJ, Moreira P, Teixeira VH. Use of nutritional supplements by elite adult Portuguese athletes is not associated with nutritional intake. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2010; 44(14):i23–i23. Avai- lable from: http://bjsm.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/ bjsm.2010.078972.70 3. Sousa M, Fernandes MJ, Moreira P, Teixeira VH. Nutritional supplements usage by portuguese athletes. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013; 83(1):48–58. 4. Maughan RONJ, King DS, Lea T. Dietary supplements. 2004; 95–113. 5. Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2017;14(1):20. Available from: http://jissn.biomedcentral.com/arti- cles/10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8 6. Marshall K. Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Altern Med Rev. 2004; 9(2):136–56. 7. Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal S. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr [Internet]. 2010; 104(5):716–23. Available from: http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_ S0007114510000991 8. Sousa GT, Lira FS, Rosa JC, de Oliveira EP, Oyama LM, Santos R V, et al. Dietary whey protein lessens several risk factors for metabolic diseases: a review. Lipids Health Dis [Internet]. 2012; 11(1):67. Avai- lable from: http://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1476-511X-11-67 9. Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages. Int J Obes [Internet]. 2007; 31(11):1696–703. Available from: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ sj.ijo.0803665 10. Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci [Internet]. 2004; 22(1):65–79. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ abs/10.1080/0264041031000140554 11. Bilsborough S, Mann N. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab [Internet]. 2006; 16(2):129–52. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query. fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&l ist_uids=16779921. 12. Toedebusch RG, Childs TE, Hamilton SR, Crowley JR, Booth FW, Roberts MD. Postprandial leucine and insulin responses and toxicological effects of a novel whey protein hydrolysate-based supplement in rats. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2012; 9(Suppl 1):P30. Available from: http://jissn.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1550-2783-9-S1-P30 13. Moreno M, de Souza GI, Hachul AC, dos Santos B, Okuda M, Neto NI, et al. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet. Nutr Metab (Lond) [Internet]. 2014; 11(1):15. Available from: http://nutritio- nandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/arti- cles/10.1186/1743-7075-11-15 14. Frestedt JL, Zenk JL, Kuskowski MA, Ward LS, Bastian ED. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study. Nutr Metab (Lond) [Internet]. 2008; 5(1):8. Available from: http:// nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1743-7075-5-8 15. Whitt KN, Ward SC, Deniz K, Liu L, Odin JA, Qin L. Cholestatic liver injury associated with whey protein and creatine supplements. Semin Liver Dis. 2008; 28(2):226–31. 16. Hoffman JR, Falvo MJ. Review article Performance And Supplementation PROTEIN – WHICH IS BEST? J Sport Sci Med. 2005; 3(2004):118–30. 17. Phillips SM. A comparison of whey to caseinate. 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