Revista de Medicina Desportiva (English) July 2018 - Page 21

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Rev . Medicina Desportiva informa , 2018 ; 9 ( 4 ): 19-21 .

Protein supplementation

André Filipe Oliveira Cabrita 1 , Prof . Doctor José Luís Themudo Barata 2
1
Medical student at the University Beira Interior ; 2 Professor of University of Beira Interior ; Director of the Nutrition Physical Activity department of Hospitalar da Cova da Beira . Covilhã . Portugal
ABSTRACT
Protein supplementation is a widespread practice in the general population , especially among the athletes . The risk of its consumption for the health is low , especially if the consumed products have a quality assurance certification . The protein supplementation with whey , casein and branched-chain amino acids has been shown to be an excellent option to complement the diet and to obtain the maximum yield of the physical exercise , providing numerous health benefits without association to relevant adverse side effects .
KEYWORDS
Whey , casein , BCAA
Introduction
The consumption of nutritional supplements is a growing practice in today ’ s society , especially among professional and recreational athletes , especially because the risk for health is low . 1 On 2013 , Sousa et al 2 found that two thirds of the Portuguese elite athletes consumed several types of nutritional supplements , and the vast majority of them were unnecessary . 3 The main reason for taking nutritional supplements by the athletes is the belief that they provide benefits that cannot other advantages . 1 , 4 For others , supplementation is seen as a method of recourse to ensure protein intake with high quantity and quality and restricting caloric intake at the same time .
The International Society of Sports Nutrition ( ISSN ) recommends that physically active individuals try to meet their daily nutritional requirements through food 5 , since food can easily and economically provide all essential amino acids needed for muscular protein synthesis .
The use of protein supplements constitutes a possible health risk due to the poor regulation and quality control to which they are subjected prior to their marketing . This risk is considered low if only the supplements of recognized companies are consumed , whose products are properly tested and certified with regard to safety and food efficiency . 1 Still , most users consume excessive doses , the that in addition to unnecessary , it may prove to be dangerous to health due to the risk of ingestion of doping substances , among others . 4
Milk serum protein ( whey )
Cow ’ s milk contains two primary protein sources : casein and whey . This represents about 20 % of the milk proteins and casein the remaining 80 %. 6-8 Whey protein complex obtained from milk serum , a residue resulting from clotting of milk for industrial cheese production . For many years , milk serum was considered a waste product in the dairy industry . 6
The protein complex whey contains a high concentration of essential and branched chain ( BCAA ) amino acids compared to other protein sources , estimated to be approximately 26 % of BCAA ( leucine , isoleucine and valine ). 6 , 8 These amino acids are efficiently absorbed and used by the body , and whey is considered a fast absorption protein ( 8-10g / h ) 7 , 9 , unlike casein , which is considered a slow absorption protein ( 6g / h ). 10 , 11 The BCAA , in particular the leucine , are important factors in the growth , construction and repair of the tissues . 6 , 8
Recent evidence suggests that whey intake ensures greater availability of essential amino acids and insulin , being the most influential source of protein known to be able to increase muscle anabolism . 12
Its contents in sulphur-rich amino acids , such as cysteine and methionine , increases the immune and antioxidant function by the intracellular conversion of glutathione , a potent intracellular antioxidant . 6
The percentage of whey in the commercial formulas varies :
• Isolated – 90 to 95 %
• Hydrolyzed – variable
• Concentrated – 25 to 89 %.
a ) Functions
The main mechanism through which the whey exerts its effects is the intracellular conversion of cysteine into glutathione , which is a potent antioxidant . 6 Due to its wide range of constituents , whey acts on several functions of the human body :
• Antimicrobial and antiviral activity 5 , 6 , 13
• Immunologic modulation 6 , 13
• Slimming , with loss of fat mass and preservation of lean
7 , 8 , 13 , 14
mass
• Protein synthesis and muscle recovery 6 , 8 , 14
• Anti-hypertension , antioxidant 6 , 8 and anti-inflammatory 8 , 13
• Decrease of triglycerides , LDL and total cholesterol , and insulin resistance in the obese patients 7 , 8
• Anti-atherosclerosis and anti-arterioesclerorisis 7
• Provides satiety 7 , 8 , 12 , 14 by increasing the levels of leptin , CCK , LPG-1 and prolonged suppression of ghrelin 8 , 9 , 12
• Decrease of blood glucose levels 8 .
b ) Clinical applications
Due to its diversity of biologically active components , supplementation with whey has been investigated for prevention and treatment of various clinical situations , being indicated in the following cases :
• Gain muscle mass
• Cancer 6
• Hepatitis B 6
• Cardiovascular diseases 7 , 8 , 14
• Osteoporosis 6
• Anti-microbial agent
• Wound healing 6
• Metabolic syndrome , obesity and dabetes Mellitus Type 2 7 , 8 , 13 , 14 .
c ) Side effects
No side effects are known caused by supplementation with whey 6 , 8 , 12 ,
Revista de Medicina Desportiva informa july 2018 · 19
Rev. Medicina Desportiva informa, 2018; 9(4):19-21. Protein supplementation André Filipe Oliveira Cabrita 1 , Prof. Doctor José Luís Themudo Barata 2 1 Medical student at the University Beira Interior; 2 Professor of University of Beira Interior; Director of the Nutrition Physical Activity department of Hospitalar da Cova da Beira. Covilhã. Portugal ABSTRACT Protein supplementation is a widespread practice in the general population, especially among the athletes. The risk of its consumption for the health is low, especially if the consumed products have a quality assurance certification. The protein supplementation with whey, casein and branched-chain amino acids has been shown to be an excellent option to complement the diet and to obtain the maximum yield of the physical exercise, providing numerous health benefits without association to relevant adverse side effects. KEYWORDS Whey, casein, BCAA Introduction The consumption of nutritional supplements is a growing practice in today’s society, especially among professional and recreational ath- letes, especially because the risk for health is low. 1 On 2013, Sousa et al 2 found that two thirds of the Portuguese elite athletes consumed several types of nutritional sup- plements, and the vast majority of them were unnecessary. 3 The main reason for taking nutritional supplements by the athletes is the belief that they provide benefits that cannot other advantages. 1,4 For others, supplementation is seen as a method of recourse to ensure pro- tein intake with high quantity and quality and restricting caloric intake at the same time. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) recommends that physically active individuals try to meet their daily nutritional require- ments through food 5 , since food can easily and economically provide all essential amino acids needed for muscular protein synthesis. The use of protein supplements constitutes a possible health risk due to the poor regulation and qual- ity control to which they are sub- jected prior to their marketing. This risk is considered low if only the supplements of recognized compa- nies are consumed, whose products are properly tested and certified with regard to safety and food effi- ciency. 1 Still, most users consume excessive doses, the that in addition to unnecessary, it may prove to be dangerous to health due to the risk of ingestion of doping substances, among others. 4 Milk serum protein (whey) Cow’s milk contains two primary pro- tein sources: casein and whey. This represents about 20% of the milk pro- teins and casein the remaining 80%. 6-8 Whey protein complex obtained from milk serum, a residue resulting from clotting of milk for industrial cheese production. For many years, milk serum was considered a waste prod- uct in the dairy industry. 6 The protein complex whey contains a high concentration of essential and branched chain (BCAA) amino acids compared to other protein sources, estimated to be approximately 26% of BCAA (leu- cine, isoleucine and valine). 6,8 These amino acids are efficiently absorbed and used by the body, and whey is considered a fast absorption protein (8-10g/h) 7,9 , unlike casein, which is considered a slow absorption protein (6g/h). 10,11 The BCAA, in particular the leucine, are important factors in the growth, construction and repair of the tissues. 6,8 Recent evidence suggests that whey intake ensures greater avail- ability of essential amino acids and insulin, being the most influential source of protein known to be able to increase muscle anabolism. 12 Its contents in sulphur-rich amino acids, such as cysteine and methio- nine, increases the immune and antioxidant function by the intracel- lular conversion of glutathione, a potent intracellular antioxidant. 6 The percentage of whey in the commercial formulas varies: • Isolated – 90 to 95% • Hydrolyzed – variable • Concentrated – 25 to 89%. a) Functions The main mechanism through which the whey exerts its effects is the intracellular conversion of cysteine into glutathione, which is a potent antioxidant. 6 Due to its wide range of constituents, whey acts on several functions of the human body: • Antimicrobial and antiviral activ- ity 5,6,13 • Immunologic modulation 6,13 • Slimming, with loss of fat mass and preservation of lean mass 7,8,13,14 • Protein synthesis and muscle recovery 6,8,14 • Anti-hypertension, antioxidant 6,8 and anti-inflammatory 8,13 • Decrease of triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol, and insulin resistance in the obese patients 7,8 • Anti-atherosclerosis and anti-arte- rioesclerorisis 7 • Provides satiety 7,8,12,14 by increas- ing the levels of leptin, CCK, LPG-1 and prolonged suppression of ghrelin 8,9,12 • Decrease of blood glucose levels 8 . b) Clinical applications Due to its diversity of biologically active components, supplementa- tion with whey has been investi- gated for prevention and treatment of various clinical situations, being indicated in the following cases: • Gain muscle mass (H[\ (H\]]\ (H\[ݘ\[\\X\\  M(H[ܛ\ (H[K[ZXܛؚX[Y[(H[X[[ (HY]XX[YKؙ\]H[X]\Y[]\\H  L M HYHYX“YHYX\Hۛۈ]\YH\[Y[][ۈ]^H  L ]\HHYYX[H\ܝ]H[ܛXH[H N0 N