OH! Magazine - Australian Version August 2016 - Page 13

DR JOANNA trends in adult (aged 18 years and older) BMI between 1975 and 2014. For the first time, this includes the proportion of individuals classified as underweight (less than 18.5kg/m²), and severely obese (35kg/m² or higher) and morbidly obese (40kg/m² or higher). The Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Risk Factor Collaboration pooled data from 1698 population-based studies, surveys, and reports totalling 19.2 million men and women aged 18 years or older from 186 countries (covering 99 per cent of the world’s population). Studies were only included if height and weight had been measured to avoid the bias arising from self-reported data. The research team used this data with statistical modelling, to calculate average BMI and the prevalence of BMI categories like underweight, obesity, and severe obesity for all countries and years between 1975 and 2014. They found that rates of obesity surpassed those of underweight in women in 2004 and in men in 2011. • Island nations in Polynesia and Micronesia have the highest average BMI in the world reaching 34.8 kg/ m² for women and 32.2 kg/m² for men in American Samoa. In Polynesia and Micronesia more than 38 per cent of men and over half of women are obese. • Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Eritrea have the lowest average BMI in the world. Timor-Leste was the lowest at 20.8kg/m² for women and Ethiopia the lowest at 20.1kg/m² for men. • More than one fifth of men in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Afghanistan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, and a quarter or more of women in Bangladesh and India are still underweight. • Some of the highlights from the country to country data include: • • Women in Singapore, Japan, and a few European countries including Czech Republic, Belgium, France, and Switzerland had virtually no increase in average BMI (less than 0.2kg/m² per decade) over the 40 years. Among high-income Englishspeaking countries, the USA has the highest BMI for both men and women (over 28kg/m²). In the USA more than one in four men and almost one in five women are severely obese. Men in Cyprus, Ireland, and Malta (27.8kg/m²), and women in Moldova (27.3kg/m²) have the highest average BMI in Europe. Bosnian and Dutch men (both around 25.9kg/m²) and Swiss women (23.7kg/m²) have the lowest average BMI in Europe. • The UK has the third highest average BMI in Europe for women equal to Ireland and the Russian Federation (all around 27.0kg/m²) and tenth highest for men along with Greece, Hungary, and Lithuania (all around 27.4kg/m²). • Almost a fifth of the world’s obese adults (118 million) live in just six high-income English-speaking countries – Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA. Over a quarter (27.1 per cent / 50 million) of the world’s severely obese people also live in these countries. By 2025, the UK is projected to have the highest levels of obese women in Europe (38 per cent), followed by Ireland (37 per cent) and Malta (34 per cent). Similar trends are projected in men, with Ireland and the UK again showing the greatest proportion (both around 38 per cent), followed Lithuania (36 per cent). By comparison, 43 per cent of US women and 45 per cent of US men are predicted to be obese in 2025. For more information about the global obesity situation visit www.ncdrisc.org YOU CAN FOLLOW DR JOANNA VIA: Web: drjoanna.com.au Facebook: drjoannamcmillan Twitter: @joannanutrition Instagram: @drjoannamcmillan AUGUST 2016 (OH! MAGAZINE) 13