This autumn edition comes at a time of great uncertainty and an escalation in tensions between Russia and the West following underwater explosions on the Nord Stream 1 and 2 pipelines , causing four leaks and plumes of gas rising to the surface of the Baltic Sea – equivalent to a third of Denmark ’ s carbon emissions .
At the time of writing the person or source of the detonations remains unknown , heightening market concerns for the looming winter in the midst of an energy war . This issue details the Baltic Sea chaos and looks at the consequences for security of supply in northwestern Europe – as well as the potential vulnerability of the region ’ s energy infrastructure to cyber or physical attacks .
We also delve into French nuclear availability over the winter . Much was made of the energy minister ’ s comments that EDF was able to keep its nuclear fleet in operation in the coldest months of the year – a time when France needs electric heaters – but are current production forecasts too optimistic ?
In addition , Europe ’ s green hydrogen plans for 40 GW of electrolyser capacity by 2030 could also be overambitious . We look beyond the hype , and investigate the most plausible uses for the green fuel over the coming decade .
As Europe shuns Russian energy , coal from Kazakhstan could be flowing to Europe in increasing volumes this year . But should Europe still be using Russian rail and port infrastructure ?
Finally , we look at the prospects for new nuclear plants in Sweden following the election victory of the centre right . The new government has pledged loan guarantees amounting to EUR 37bn , and hopes to incentivise the roll-out of small modular reactors as well as large units .
We return in December , hopefully in line with French nuclear reactors .