Just Cerfing Vol. 7, Issue 8, August 2016 Volume 5, Issue 3, March, 2014 | Page 52

Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page Soft Engineering vs. a Dynamic Approach in Coastal Dune Management Figure 11. Total foredune volume (transects 19.6 to 21.6) and volumes of sections 1 and 2 between 1980 and 2010, with markers for highwater events (storm), beach nourishments on the north coast of Ameland, introduction of dynamic coastal management, and the start of soil subsidence. High-water events and nourishments have a different temporal scale and are therefore not represented on the y-axis. High-water events are indicated by high bars. For sand nourishments, a distinction is made between nourishments within the investigated foredune and those to the west of this area. The former are represented by high bars, with the nourishment of 1992 reaching to transect 19.6 and that in 1998 reaching to transect 21.0. Low bars indicate nourishments farther west (up to transect 17). Foredune nourishments outside the study area (1980 and 1990) are not displayed. Dynamic coastal management was introduced in section 2 in 1995 and in 1999 for the rest of the foredune. Natural gas extraction started in 1985, with soil subsidence starting in 1986. To access this full JCR Research Article, please visit: http://www.jcronline.org/doi/abs/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-13-00125.1 52 Just Cerfing Vol. 5, Issue 3, March 2014 53