IASC 25 years - Page 22

provided descriptions of Greenland and the Davis 1.1.1 Strait are those of Lourens Feikesz Haan (1720), Hans Egede (1746), Johan Anderson (1756), and David Cranz (1765-1770).5 How Science Organizations in the Non-Arctic Countries Became Members of IASC Louwrens Hacquebord In this way, descriptions of the coast and coastal maps were generated. Many of the old maps have been preserved and they provide a good record of how the geographical image developed.6 In the 19th century, researchers from other disciplines became Introduction interested in the Arctic as well. Geologists began to The exploration of the Arctic has always been an search for minerals in the interior Arctic lands, me- international effort. For a long time, explorers and teorologists and geoscientists became interested in scientists from both Arctic and non-Arctic countries the earth system and especially in earth magnetism. have been active in seeking to understand Arctic Prospecting for coal and minerals brought new ex- geophysical, biological and socio-economical pro- peditions to the lands around the North Pole. cesses. From mediaeval times onward, ships sailed from the temperate zone to the North to discover Most expeditions, however, were individual efforts. new lands and new sea routes to Southeast Asia. No structured scientific circumpolar research was In the sixteenth century, English and Dutch expe- being undertaken. It is for this reason that Karl ditions sailed North to search for a northern sea Weyprecht in 1875 devised a plan to establish a route.1 New discoveries were recorded in docu- network of stations for systematic and synchro- ments and historical maps demonstrating increased nous observations in polar areas, which he aimed geographical knowledge of the Arctic. to realize through international collaboration. His plan formed the starting point for the organization The scientific and realistic representations of the of the first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1882- area were being published as early as the whaling 1883.7 Ten countries – six Arctic and four non-Arc- period of the seventeenth century. One of the best tic - participated in the initiative. In the second IPY documented and earliest realistic descriptions of (1932-1933) the number of participating countries the Arctic was written by a German ship´s barber, increased to fourteen – seven Arctic and seven Friedrich Martens (1675). His description of the non-Arctic – all contributing to one science plan. In North formed the basis of subsequent accounts the third IPY (most often referred to as the Interna- written by Dutch and English whaling captains tional Geophysical Year – IGY 1957-1958), twelve C ­ ornelis Gijsbert Zorgdrager (1720, 1727)3 and Wil- countries participated in polar research, but this liam Scoresby (1820). Other classic works, which time the science focused mostly on Antarctica.8 2 4 IASC Council Meeting in Illulisat, Greenland, 1994. Photo provided by Louwrens Hacquebord 21 01 Development of IASC