Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 1 - Page 6

WildLife Group of the SAVA

against hemorrhagic septicaemia they need to be administered very early in the disease . However , due to the peracute nature of this disease syndrome , therapy is often unsuccessful . Antibiotic sensitivity testing against isolates obtained enables selection of effective antibiotics . Unfortunately , due to the rapid progression of the condition , one frequently cannot wait for antibiogram results before initiation of therapy .
However , where possible , any antibiograms available from prior cases should be used for antibiotic selection during an outbreak . Intravenous application of antibiotics as soon as possible forms the basis of treatment 3 , 5 , 7 .
Antibiotics which have proven effective include : penicillin , amoxicillin , cephalothin , ceftiofur , cefquinome , streptomycin , gentamycin , spectinomycin , florfenicol , tetracycline , sulfonamide , trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole , erythromycin , tilmicosin , enrofloxacin ( and other floroquinolones ), amikacin and norfloxacin . However , emerging resistance to tetracyclines and penicillin and appearance of multi-drug resistance strains are being documented , further highlighting the importance of running antibiotic sensitivity tests against all isolates made 3 , 5 , 7 .
Vaccination of African buffalo against hemorrhagic septicaemia is still very much in the trial phase . The vast majority of cases so far documented in buffalo in South Africa involve Pasteurella multocida type B . Type B strains are not present in any of the commercial pasteurella vaccines available in this country . Autogenous type B strain Pasteurella multocida vaccines have been recently developed and are currently being used in field trials in buffaloes . ( Karen Nel – Design Biologix , Personal Communication , 2016 ). The Onderstepoort Biological Products Pasteurella vaccine for Cattle contains Pasteurella multocida types A and D ( which cause ordinary pasteurellosis ) and E ( causing hemorrhagic septicaemia predominantly in cattle ), as well as Mannheimia haemolytica type 1 .
REFERENCES 1 . Bastianello , S S & Jonker , M R , 1981 . A report on the occurrence of septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida type E in cattle from southern Africa . Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 52 , 99-104 .
2 . Caswell J L & Williams K J . 2016 . Respiratory System . In : Jubb , Kennedy and Palmer ’ s Pathology of Domestic Animals . 6th edn . Elsevier , St Louis .
3 . Coetzer J A W & Tustin R C . 2004 – Infectious Diseases of Livestock 2 nd edn . Oxford University Press .
4 . Dziva F , Mohan K & Pawandiwa A , 2000 . Capsular serogroups of Pasteurella multocida isolated from animals in Zimbabwe . Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 67:225-228
5 . Moisier D A . 2016 . Overview of Hemorrhagic septicaemia . In : Merck Veterinary Manual . Merck and Co Inc .
6 . Voights A , Ngaisiue G , Henton M M & Hubschle O J B , 1997 . Haemorrhagic septicaemia due to Pasteurella multocida type B2 in Namibia . Tropical Animal Health and Production , 4 ; 247 – 248 .
7 . World Organization for Animal Health . 2013 . Hemorrhagic septicaemia . Technical Disease Card . OIE , Paris .
8 . World Organization for Animal Health . 2012 . Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals . OIE , Paris .
Customised veterinary medicines to effectively address your patient ’ s requirements
Service Centre : 0860 109 779 or pharmacist @ v-tech . co . za
ISO 9001:2008 Accredited
6
WildLife Group of the SAVA against hemorrhagic septicaemia they need to be administered very early in the disease. However, due to the peracute nature of this disease syndrome, therapy is often unsuccessful. Antibiotic sensitivity testing against isolates obtained enables selection of effective antibiotics. Unfortunately, due to the rapid progression of the condition, one frequently cannot wait for antibiogram results before initiation of therapy. and are currently being used in field trials in buffaloes. (Karen Nel – Design Biologix, Personal Communication, 2016). The Onderstepoort Biological Products Pasteurella vaccine for Cattle contains Pasteurella multocida types A and D (which cause ordinary pasteurellosis) and E (causing hemorrhagic septicaemia predominantly in cattle), as well as Mannheimia haemolytica type 1. However, where possible, any antibiograms available from prior cases should be used for antibiotic selection during an outbreak. Intravenous application of antibiotics as soon as possible forms the basis of treatment 3, 5, 7 . REFERENCES Antibiotics which have proven effective include: penicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefquinome, streptomycin, gentamycin, spectinomycin, florfenicol, tetracycline, sulfonamide, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin (and other floroquinolones), amikacin and norfloxacin. However, emerging resistance to tetracyclines and penicillin and appearance of multi-drug resistance strains are being documented, further highlighting the importance of running antibiotic sensitivity tests against all isolates made 3, 5, 7 . Vaccination of African buffalo against hemorrhagic septicaemia is still very much in the trial phase. The vast majority of cases so far documented in buffalo in South Africa involve Pasteurella multocida type B. Type B strains are not present in any of the commercial pasteurella vaccines available in this country. Autogenous type B strain Pasteurella multocida vaccines have been recently developed 1. Bastianello, S S & Jonker, M R, 1981. A report on the occurrence of septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida type E in cattle from southern Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 52, 99-104. 2. Caswell J L & Williams K J. 2016. Respiratory System. In: Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th edn. Elsevier, St Louis. 3. Coetzer J A W & Tustin R C. 2004 – Infectious Diseases of Livestock 2 nd edn. Oxford University Press. 4. Dziva F, Mohan K & Pawandiwa A, 2000. Capsular serogroups of Pasteurella multocida isolated from animals in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:225-228 5. Moisier D A. 2016. Overview of Hemorrhagic septicaemia. In: Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck and Co Inc. 6. Voights A, Ngaisiue G, Henton M M & Hubschle O J B, 1997. Haemorrhagic septicaemia due to Pasteurella multocida type B2 in Namibia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 4; 247 – 248. 7. World Organization for Animal Health. 2013. Hemorrhagic septicaemia. Technical Disease Card. OIE, Paris. 8. World Organizat f"VF#"V`Fv7F2FW7G2Bf66W2f"FW'&W7G&2R&27W7F֗6VBfWFW&'VF6W2FVffV7FfVǒFG&W72W"FVN( 2&WV&VVG06W'f6R6VG&Scss"&67DbFV66`4#67&VFFV@