Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 1 - Page 27

nearest local health institution by X-ray examination and sputum microscopy. Preliminary data: The 4 different tests used in this study during the period September–November 2014 had the following seroprevalence TB DPP™ Assay (2%), ElephantTB Stat Pak® (18%), ELISA (8%) and Elephant specific interferon–gamma assay (26%) from the 50 elephants that were tested for tuberculosis. Follow-up testing was done using the eINFg assay on 18 animals that were test positive in November 2015. The results showed that 13 of the 18 elephants (72%) tested were again positive to the eIFN-y assay. Of the 50 handlers that were tested 6% were found positive for tuberculosis using sputum microscopy and x-ray examination. Endocrine monitoring of reproduction and stress in wildlife https://vimeo.com/216806619 André Ganswindt Endocrine Research Laboratory, Dept. of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Mammal Research Institute, Dept. of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa; Email: andre.ganswindt@up.ac.za Abstract: Wildlife plays an important role in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of nature. Due to progressing global urbanisation, more and more wild animals are managed to balance the needs for wildlife with the needs of people. Under these circumstances, the ability to monitor reproductive status can greatly facilitate attempts to control wildlife populations. More specifically, the ability to monitor key reproductive events, such as ovulation and pregnancy, not only find widespread application in the management of natural breeding, but also provide the basis for assisted reproductive technologies. Animal welfare is nowadays also a key issue when managing wild animals. Especially the avoidance of stress, defined as a state of perturbed homeostasis, plays an increasingly important role in wildlife management. As stress is generally regarded as antipathetic to welfare, things can get complicated when wildlife encounter unfamiliar stressors related to restrictive housing conditions or management interventions, especially over a prolonged period of time. Monitoring alterations in hormone concentration is a precise and widely accepted approach for examining reproductive function and responses to stressors. Although hormones can be measured in various biological matrices, non-invasive methods have gained popularity as a more practical approach for assessing ovarian, testicular and, more recently, adrenocortical activity in especially intractable wildlife species. By using a series of case studies focussing on aspects like musth in African elephants, pregnancy in aardvark, dehorning of white rhinoceroses, or the effect of urbanization in African lesser bushbabies, this presentation will underline the importance of hormone analysis as a valuable tool for monitoring regulative endocrine mechanisms linked to reproduction and stress in African wildlife. 2017 MAY 27