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brown bear. Frontiers Zool., 13: 1. Hadinger U, Haymerle A, Knauer F, Schwarzenberger F, Walzer C. 2015. Faecal cortisol metabolites to assess stress in wildlife: evaluation of a field method in free‐ranging chamois. Methods Ecol. Evol. 6: 1349-1357. McEwen BS, Wingfield JC. 2003. The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones Behav. 43: 2-15. Mentaberre G, López-Olvera JR, Casas-Díaz E, Bach-Raich E, Marco I, Lavín S. 2010. Use of haloperidol and azaperone for stress control in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) captured by means of drive-nets. Res. Vet. Sci. 88: 531-535. Möstl E, Palme R. 2002. Hormones as indicators of stress. Dom. Animal Endocrinol. 23: 67-74. Porges SW. 2007. The polyvagal perspective. Biol. Psychol, 74: 116-143. Pumprla J, Howorka K, Groves D, Chester M, Nolan J. 2002. Functional assessment of heart rate variability: physiological basis and practical applications. Int. J. Cardiol. 84: 1-14. Reeder DM, Kramer KM. 2005. Stress in free-ranging mammals: integrating physiology, ecology, and natural history. J. Mammal. 86: 225-235. Romero LM, Dickens MJ, Cyr NE. 2009. The reactive scope model—a new model integrating homeostasis, allostasis, and stress. Hormones Behav. 55: 375-389. Sheriff MJ, Dantzer B, Delehanty B, Palme R, Boonstra R. 2011. Measuring stress in wildlife: techniques for quantifying glucocorticoids. Oecologia 166: 869-887. Støen O-G, Ordiz A, Evans AL, Laske TG, Kindberg J, Fröbert O, Swenson JE, Arnemo JM. 2015. Physiological evidence for a human-induced landscape of fear in brown bears (Ursus arctos). Physiol. Behav. 152: 244-248. Thayer JF, Sternberg E. 2006. Beyond heart rate variability. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1088: 361-372. Theil PK, Coutant AE, Olesen CR. 2004. Seasonal changes and activity-dependent variation in heart rate of roe deer. J. Mammal. 85: 245-253. Von Borell E, Langbein J, Després G, Hansen S, Leterrier C, Marchant-Forde J, Marchant-Forde R, Minero M, Mohr E, Prunier A. 2007. Heart rate variability as a measure of autonomic regulation of cardiac activity for assessing stress and welfare in farm animals—a review. Physiol. Behav. 92: 293-316. Wikelski M, Cooke SJ. 2006. Conservation physiology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21: 38-46. Current antelope drug combinations as used by practising wildlife veterinarians in South Africa https://vimeo.com/216808780 Douw Grobler Abstract: Three practical hands-on workshops conducted in 2016 were attended by a total of 84 wildlife veterinarians. The newest and most practical drug combinations demonstrated and presented by different wildlife veterinarians were tested, discussed and reviewed on 9 species in Northwest, Limpopo and Eastern Cape. The reports, results, feedback and cooperation were astonishing. This talk will summarize the findings, recommendations and most practical drug combinations of the entire group on four species: sable antelope; roan antelope, impala and nyala. This includes regimens for anaestesia and tranquilization, as well as alternatives in case of opioid scarcity. Can we call them Wildlife Diseases anymore? https://vimeo.com/216809920 William B. Karesh, D.V.M Executive Vice-President for Health and Policy; President, OIE Working Group on Wildlife Co-chair, IUCN Species Survival Commission - Wildlife Health Specialist Group EPT Partners Liaison, USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats - PREDICT-2 Program As zoonoses account for nearly two-thirds of human infectious diseases, the majority of which are from wild species, wildlife health (or wildlife diseases) are increasingly being recognized as important factors in public health. This is especially relevant given increasing pressures on our environment that are changing human contact with wildlife, resulting in the growing threat of disease emergence to our 2017 MAY 25