Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 1 - Page 23

Integr . Comp . Physiol . 261 : R1286-R1293 . Haveman U , Kuschinsky K . 1982 . Neurochemical aspects of the opioid-induced ‘ catatonia ’. Neurochem . Int . 4 : 199-215 . Heard DJ , Kollias GV , Buss D , Caligiuri R , Coniglario J . 1990 . Comparative cardiovascular effects of intravenous etorphine and carfentanil in domestic goats . J . Zoo Wildl . Med . 21 : 166-170 . Heard DJ , Nichols WW , Buss D , Kollias GV . 1996 . Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscularly administered etorphine and carfentanil in goats . Am . J . Vet . Res . 57 : 87-96 . Lalley PM . 2003 . µ -Opioid receptor agonist effects on medullary respiratory neurons in the cat : evidence for involvement in certain types of ventilatory disturbances . Am . J . Physiol . Reg . Comp . Physiol . 285 : R1287-R1304 . Lalley PM . 2008 . Opioidergic and dopaminergic modulation of respiration . Resp . Physiol . Neuro . 164 : 160-167 . Lonergan T , Goodchild AK , Christie MJ , Pilowsky PM . 2003 . Presynaptic δ opioid receptors differentially modulate rhythm and pattern generation in the ventral respiratory group of the rat . Neuroscience 121 : 959-973 . Mather L . 1994 . Opioid analgesic drugs . In : Anaesthesia . ( 2nd edition ) Nimmo W , Rowbotham D , Smith G ( ed ). Blackwell Scientific Publications , Oxford , UK , pp . 148-149 . McCrimmon DR , Alheid GF . 2003 . On the opiate trail of respiratory depression . Am . J . Physiol . Reg . Integr . Comp . Physiol . 285 : R1274-R1275 . McKenzie A . 1993 . The Capture and Care Manual . Wildlife Decision Support Services cc and the South African Veterinary Foundation , Pretoria , South Africa , pp . 729 . Nunn JF . 1993 . Nunn ’ s Applied Respiratory Physiology ( 4th edition ). Butterworth Heinemann Ltd , Cambridge , UK , pp . 658 . Pattinson KTS . 2008 . Opioids and the control of respiration . Brit . J . Anaesth . 100 : 747-758 . Roquebert J , Delgoulet C . 1988 . Cardiovascular effects of etorphine in rats . J . Auton . Pharmacol . 8 : 39-43 . Shook JE , Watkins WD , Camporesi EM . 1990 . Differential roles of opioid receptors in respiration , respiratory disease , and opioid-induced respiratory depression . Am . Rev . Resp . Dis . 142 : 895-909 . Still J , Raath JP , Matzner L . 1996 . Respiratory and circulatory parameters of African elephants ( Loxodonta africana ) anaesthtised with etorphine and azaperone . J . S . Afr . Vet . Assoc . 67 : 123-127 . Takeda S , Eriksson LI , Yamamoto Y , Joensen H , Onimaru
H , Lindahl SGE . 2001 . Opioid action on respiratory neuron activity of the isolated respiratory network in newborn rats . Anesthesiology 95 : 740-749 . Wenger S , Boardman W , Buss P , Govender D , Foggin C . 2007 . The cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine , azaperone , detomidine , and butorphanol in field anesthetized white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ). J . Zoo Wildl . Med . 38 : 380-387 .
Using heart rate variability in wildlife research to assess stress
https :// vimeo . com / 216805767
Friederike Pohlin 1 , Kristin Brabender 2 , Gerhard Fluch 1 , Gabrielle Stalder 1 , Thierry Petit 3 and Christian Walzer 1
1
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna , Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution , Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology , Savoyenstraße 1 , 1160 Vienna , Austria ; 2 Hortobagy National Park , Hungary ; 3 Zoo de la Palmyre , 17570 Les Mathes , France
Human influence on natural systems is increasing continuously . Knowing in how far animals can adapt to changing environmental conditions without fitness impairments is essential to understand the consequences of these influences ( Dantzer et al ., 2014 , Wikelski and Cooke , 2006 ).
Stress is defined as a state in which homeostasis is lost ( Reeder and Kramer , 2005 ). This includes physiological “ stress ” that occurs in anticipation of predictable seasonal changes , but also stress that occurs in response to unpredictable anthropogenic disturbances ( Dantzer et al ., 2014 ). In general , the organism is able to cope adequately with changing environmental stimuli and will only be “ stressed ” when allostatic overload is reached [ concept of allostasis ( McEwen and Wingfield , 2003 )], or when its adaptive capacity is reduced [ reactive scope model ( Romero et al ., 2009 )]. The two predominant physiological responses to environmental stimuli are ( 1 ) the activation of the
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Integr. Comp. Physiol. 261: R1286-R1293. Haveman U, Kuschinsky K. 1982. Neurochemical aspects of the opioid-induced ‘catatonia’. Neurochem. Int. 4: 199-215. Heard DJ, Kollias GV, Buss D, Caligiuri R, Coniglario J. 1990. Comparative cardiovascular effects of intravenous etorphine and carfentanil in domestic goats. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 21: 166-170. Heard DJ, Nichols WW, Buss D, Kollias GV. 1996. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscularly administered etorphine and carfentanil in goats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57: 87-96. Lalley PM. 2003. µ-Opioid receptor agonist effects on medullary respiratory neurons in the cat: evidence for involvement in certain types of ventilatory disturbances. Am. J. Physiol. Reg. Comp. Physiol. 285: R1287-R1304. Lalley PM. 2008. Opioidergic and dopaminergic modulation of respiration. Resp. Physiol. Neuro. 164: 160-167. Lonergan T, Goodchild AK, Christie MJ, Pilowsky PM. 2003. Presynaptic δ opioid receptors differentially modulate rhythm and pattern generation in the ventral respiratory group of the rat. Neuroscience 121: 959-973. Mather L. 1994. Opioid analgesic drugs. In: Anaesthesia. (2nd edition) Nimmo W, Rowbotham D, Smith G (ed). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, pp. 148-149. McCrimmon DR, Alheid GF. 2003. On the opiate trail of respiratory depression. Am. J. Physiol. Reg. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 285: R1274-R1275. McKenzie A. 1993. The Capture and Care Manual. Wildlife Decision Support Services cc and the South African Veterinary Foundation, Pretoria, South Africa, pp. 729. Nunn JF. 1993. Nunn’s Applied Respiratory Physiology (4th edition). Butterworth Heinemann Ltd, Cambridge, UK, pp. 658. Pattinson KTS. 2008. Opioids and the control of respiration. Brit. J. Anaesth. 100: 747-758. Roquebert J, Delgoulet C. 1988. Cardiovascular effects of etorphine in rats. J. Auton. Pharmacol. 8: 39-43. Shook JE, Watkins WD, Camporesi EM. 1990. Differential roles of opioid receptors in respiration, respiratory disease, and opioid-induced respiratory depression. Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 142: 895-909. Still J, Raath JP, Matzner L. 1996. Respiratory and circulatory parameters of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) anaesthtised with etorphine and azaperone. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 67: 123-127. Takeda S, Eriksson LI, Yamamoto Y, Joensen H, Onimaru H, Lindahl SGE. 2001. Opioid action on respiratory neuron activity of the isolated respiratory network in newborn rats. Anesthesiology 95: 740-749. Wenger S, Boardman W, Buss P, Govender D, Foggin C. 2007. The cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine, azaperone, detomidine, and butorphanol in field anesthetized white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 38: 380-387. Us rV'B&FRf&&ƗGvFƖfP&W6V&6F76W727G&W70GG3fV6#cSscpg&VFW&RƖ&7F'&&VFW""vW&&BfV6v'&VR7FFW"FW''WFB2B6&7FvǦW"VfW'6GbfWFW&'VF6RfVFW'FVBbFVw&FfR&wBWfWF&W6V&67FGWFRbvFƖfRV6w6fV7G&9PcfVW7G&"'F&wF&Vv'2FRח&RsSsW2FW2g&6PVfVV6RGW&77FV227&V6p6FVW6ǒvrrf"26F@F6vrVf&VF6FF2vFW@fFW72&VG22W76VFFVFW'7FBFP66WVV6W2bFW6RfVV6W2FGW"WB#BvV6B6R#b7G&W722FVfVB27FFRv6V7F6227@&VVFW"B&W"#RF26VFW26v6( 7G&W7>( FB67W'2F6Fb&VF7F&P6V66vW2'WB67G&W72FB67W'2&W76RFV&VF7F&RF&vV2F7GW&&6W0FGW"WB#BvVW&FR&v62&PF6RFWVFVǒvF6vrVf&VF7FVƒBvǒ&R( 7G&W76VN( vV7FF0fW&B2&V6VB66WBb7F624WvVBvvfVB#2"vVG2FFfR66G2&VGV6VB&V7FfR66RFV&W&WB#FRGv&VF֖B6v6&W76W0FVf&VF7FVƒ&RFR7FfFbFP#p#0