Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 1 - Page 19

on blood collected prior to death), indicated severe dehydration, electrolyte imbalances with hypokalaemia, and significantly raised muscle enzymes (CK and AST). Pathology The animal died shortly after becoming recumbent and a post mortem was performed. The stand out features at post mortem examination were of an over-conditioned animal, severe cardiac endocardial haemorrhages with suspected myocardial necrosis accompanied by severe pulmonary oedema and abundant tracheal foam. Histological examination of formalin-fixed tissues collected at post mortem revealed extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis as the most significant lesion. Mineral Analysis Fresh liver collected at post mortem was submitted for quantitative mineral analysis. Copper levels were extremely low confirming a long-standing copper deficiency in this antelope. The liver selenium levels reported were likely associated with the prior application of a selenium injectable product, while magnesium, calcium and phosphate levels in liver are not reliable indicators of their status. For theses minerals (calcium, phosphate, magnesium) blood levels are preferred to interpret mineral status. Interpretation “Falling disease” of cattle which has been described in Australia and Florida, USA is a syndrome of sudden death believed to result from prolonged copper deficiency characterised by extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis. Considering this information copper deficiency myocardial necrosis is suspected in this roan antelope. The blood results provided also raise concerns about hypokalaemia, hypophosphatemia and hypochloraemia shortly before death and such electrolyte imbalances could have had fatal consequences on an already compromised myocardium. The clinical chemistry results would be consistent with those expected in an animal with metabolic imbalances and the CK and AST levels would fit the nature and duration of the myocardial pathology. This case highlights the growing importance of performing mineral analyses on wildlife patients particularly considering the rapid intensification that the industry is experiencing. Knowledge pertaining to the preferred sample type for a minerals analysis is important to ensure that control measures implemented are based on scientifically sound and relevant data. When investigating translocation associated conditions in addition to the common capture (exertional) myopathy syndromes one must also consider electrolyte imbalances (transport tetany) and underlying nutritional / toxic cardiomyopathies as possible contributing factors. The high incidence of wild cheetah mortality during immobilisation https://vimeo.com/216822289 Vincent C van der Merwe Endangered Wildlife Trust, Private Bag X11, Modderfontein, 1645, Johannesburg A metapopulation of 332 wild cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) exists on 51 small fenced reserves in South Africa. These reserves range in size from 30km2 to over 1000km2 and each hold between one and 30 cheetahs. All metapopulation reserves have predator proof fencing, preventing opportunities for natural gene flow between populations. Genetic evidence accumulated since 1980s shows that genetically effective population size of 50 individuals is inadequate for preventing inbreeding depression over five generations in the wild. A population of at least 100 individuals is required to limit loss in total fitness to less than 10%. However, at least 1000 individuals are required to retain evolutionary potential for fitness in perpetuity. 2017 MAY 19