Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 1 - Page 15

haemorrhage. Haemolytic anaemia – This was an emerging disease of captive black rhinos in the 1990s. There were 44 cases in 36 black rhinos, resulting in 23 mortalities. Although the aetiology is unknown, it has been linked to Leptospirosis, oxidative damage to red blood cells or nutritional deficiency (vitamin E, hypophosphataemia). Clinically, rhinos have pale mucous membranes, weakness, haemoglobinuria, and often progress to death. The diagnosis is based on haematocrit, urinalysis, and clinical signs. Idiopathic Haemorrhagic Vasculopathy Syndrome (IVHS) – This disease also emerged in captive black rhinos in the late 1990s. The majority of cases had lived in Texas, USA. Clinical signs included severe non-haemolytic anaemia (hct = 9-3%), swelling of the shoulder, neck and forelimbs, lethargy, laminitis and sloughing of nails, respiratory stridor, and oral ulcers. Aetiology is unknown but may be immune-mediated, similar to equine Streptococcal vasculitis. Often fatal, although survivors have recurrence of signs. Idiopathic oral and skin diseases – These syndromes are one of the most prevalent health problems of captive black rhinos. It is estimated that 50% of adults have had at least one episode of skin or oral/nasal mucosal lesions. Most episodes are associated with other health problems or stressful events, and may be fatal. Multiple syndromes have been described; superficial necrolytic dermatopathy, nodular collagen degeneration, eosinophilic granulomas and dermatitis, and episodic epistaxis. Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) – Previously known as iron storage disease, this is an important disease of captive black rhinos. It has also been observed in recently captured black rhinos placed in bomas 2017 MAY 15