Hooo-Hooo Volume 10, Nr 3 - Page 8

WildLife Group of the SAVA

Please note grazer ’ s and browser ’ s nutrient requirements are completely different , ensure the diet being fed is suitable for the particular species .
• Full or boma feeds should never be in a pelleted form .
• The roughage component should be longer than 2.5 to 3.5 cm in length .
• If full feeds are considered as an option , rather use the semi adlib argument mentioned above .
Available forage / Roughage The cheapest source of roughage in the dry or winter months is natural veld – so try to stock the farm or camp to the calculated carrying-capacity suggestions for the area .
If it is necessary to purchase roughage ( e . g . lucerne , grass , oat hay ): 1 . Purchase it from a reputable source . 2 . When purchasing lucerne ask for a certificate of analysis . Lucerne quality varies with the age of the plant at cutting and bailing , with different cuts , and from supplier to supplier . For farms that make self-mix feeds , it is critical to know what the quality of the product is before use . If possible , do the same for the grass hay .
3 . Do not use any roughage that has any visible signs of fungal growth / mouldiness . Mould / fungus is often associated with mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis .
4 . When using roughage sources like soya bean , peanut and other legume hays , please be aware of possible fungal growth in the bean pods or hulls . When in doubt use a mycotoxin binder when using these roughages as part of a self-mix feed or as a roughage source .
5 . Estimating intake of roughage for game animals for good production :
• Due to the moisture content varying in dry veld , browse , purchased hays including Lucerne , intakes are given on a dry matter basis ( DM ) - the amount of grass minus the moisture .
• DM intakes vary with body size , physiological state – dry , pregnant , lactating and age . When considering a typical animal on average , the following categories exist ;
• Very large animals ( 700 kg and bigger ) tend to eat between 1.2 and 2 % of their body mass daily .
• Large animals ( 100kg to about 700kg ) eat between 2 to 2.5 % of their live weight on a daily basis .
• Smaller species ( smaller than 100kg ) eat about 3.5 to 4.5 % of their live weight daily .
• In situations where there is limited or no natural forage , take the desired species weight multiply it with the above mentioned intake percentage ( average value ), multiply this with an approximate moisture value , and subtract the supplement or semi adlib feed amounts .
• For example , a 220kg animal that gets 1.5kg pellets ( as recommended by feed company / nutritionist ) will need :
• 220 kg animal x ( 2 + 2.5 ) % ( average intake ) = 2
• 220 x 2.25 % = 4.95kg DM total feed intake
• 4.95 DM hay x 1.12 ( moisture ) = 5.54 kg hay on as is basis assuming the dry hay has 12 % moisture
• Hay amount of 5.54kg – 1.5kg pellets
• 5.5kg hay – 1.5kg pellets = 4 kg roughage
• Please add a small amount of hay extra to compensate for wastage .
Purchasing Supplements , meals and blocks 1 . When purchasing locally available feed products , purchase from a reputable feed firm that can guarantee quality and consistency , that follow strict protocols in terms of purchasing raw materials , safety , transport and technical on the farm back up .
2 . Ensure the supplements or self-mix diets are designed by an animal nutritionist that has a lot of on the farm experience with wildlife .
3 . If rhino or any horse like animals are being fed , ensure feed is ionophore free . Possible contamination of feed with an ionophore ( Monensin ) can kill the animals .
• Ensure game pellets or meals are made in a ionophore free factory .
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WildLife Group of the SAVA Please note grazer’s and browser’s nutrient requirements are completely different, ensure the diet being fed is suitable for the particular species. • Full or boma feeds should never be in a pelleted form. • The roughage component should be longer than 2.5 to 3.5 cm in length. • If full feeds are considered as an option, rather use the semi adlib argument mentioned above. • Available forage/Roughage The cheapest source of roughage in the dry or winter months is natural veld – so try to stock the farm or camp to the calculated carrying-capacity suggestions for the area. If it is necessary to purchase roughage (e.g. lucerne, grass, oat hay): 1. Purchase it from a reputable source. 2. When purchasing lucerne ask for a certificate of analysis. Lucerne quality varies with the age of the plant at cutting and bailing, with different cuts, and from supplier to supplier. For farms that make self-mix feeds, it is critical to know what the quality of the product is before use. If possible, do the same for the grass hay. 3. Do not use any roughage that has any visible signs of fungal growth/mouldiness. Mould/ fungus is often associated with mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis. 4. When using roughage sources like soya bean, peanut and other legume hays, please be aware of possible fungal growth in the bean pods or hulls. When in doubt use a mycotoxin binder when using these roughages as part of a self-mix feed or as a roughage source. 5. Estimating intake of roughage for game animals for good production: • Due to the moisture content varying in dry veld, browse, purchased hays including Lucerne, intakes are given on a dry matter basis (DM)- the amount of grass minus the moisture. • DM intakes vary with body size, physiological 8 • • • • • state – dry, pre ахѥ])ͥɥٕɅѡ)ݥѕɥ́+$Y䁱ɝ̀Ȥѕ)ѼЁݕĸȁȔѡȁ)́+$1ɝ̀ѼЀ)ݕȁѼȸԔѡȁٔݕЁ)䁉̸ͥ+$Mȁ̀͵ȁѡ)Ѐ̸ԁѼиԔѡȁٔݕЁ)%ͥՅѥ́ݡɔѡɔ́ѕȁ)ɅɅхѡͥɕ́ݕ)ձѥ䁥ЁݥѠѡٔѥх)ɍхٕɅمՔձѥѡ́ݥѠ)ɽ᥵єɔمՔՉɅ)ѡЁȁ͕չ̸+$ȁᅵѡЁ̀ĸխ)̀́ɕ䁙)ɥѥФݥ(ȬȸԤٕɅх(ȸԔиխ4ѽхх(иԁ4ĸȀɔԸЁ)́́ͥ́յѡ䁡䁡̀Ȕ)ɔ)!䁅չЁԸѭLĸխ(Ըխ䃊Lĸխ̀Ёɽ՝+$A͔͵չЁ䁕ɄѼ)ͅєȁ݅х()AɍͥḾ̰(ĸ$]ɍͥ䁅مɽՍ̰)ɍ͔ɽɕхɴѡЁ)ՅɅѕՅ䁅ͥѕ䰁ѡЁ)ɥЁɽѽ́ѕɵ́ɍͥɅ)ѕɥ̰ͅ䰁ɅЁѕѡ)ɴ(ȸ$ɔѡ́ȁ͕́ɔ)ͥ䁅ɥѥЁѡЁ́)ѡɴɥݥѠݥ(̸$%ɡȁ䁡͔́ɔ)ɔ́ɔɕAͥ)хѥݥѠɔ(5ͥѡ̸+$ɔ́ȁ́ɔ)ɔɕѽ((0