Hooo-Hooo Volume 10, Nr 3 - Page 10

WildLife Group of the SAVA Feeding animals, the different types of feed: General • All Feed must be placed in a decent feed bowl, that gets cleaned periodically • If hay is supplied as a roughage source, place it in a separate bowl or hay stack on the side, away from the supplement or semi adlib feed. • Do not allow hay to be placed on the ground directly; • Animals tend to lie, urinate and defecate on it, rendering it useless. • This will prevent soil moisture from being absorbed into the bale of hay – creating a suitable environment for mould/fungal growth. • When feeding, supplying the animals with one or two bowls for the whole herd is not advised. This creates the situation where only a few animals will eat all of the feed, leaving the rest of the herd without any. • When feeding supplements and semi adlib feeds, a long line of feed bowls, or a long feeding crib/ space is not advised, as the dominant animal tends to chase younger and non-dominant animals away, resulting in the dominant animals eating more than the rest. Suggested feeding methods when feeding supplements and semi adlib feeds (NOT ROUGHAGE): • Measure out the required amount of feed, and supply accordingly. • To prevent dominance and over eating in intensive production units (breeding herds in camps); • All feed bowls must be placed far enough from each other to prevent dominance at a particular feed bowl. • Allow 2.5 animal lengths between bowls. • Place the bowls in a huge block - in a chessboard fashion. • This allows the non-dominant animals to avoid the dominant animals, giving each animal a chance to eat. • Where both male and female animals have horns, it is advised to have 20% more bowls than animals. • Where only males have horns, about four to six 10 • • • • • animals to a bowl is advised To ensure all animals get a chance to eat their amount on a daily basis – or get it as an average over the feeding period • Train the animals to eat at the bowls • When placing the feed, only do so if and when all the animals are near • This allows all the animals a chance to get food, and prevent one animal from over eating. • If feed is left over supply the same amount less the next day. Move feeding sights/bowls periodically. When feeding supplements in the form of pellets, supply the pellets separate to the hay. • This ensures all animals get a chance to eat their share of pellets and prevent some from only getting hay. To prevent rumen disorders like rumenitis and acidosis, animals need to be adapted to any new feed. • So when introducing animals to a feed or changing feed, it is very important to adapt the animals; do it over approximately 5 weeks 1/5th the first week, 2/5ths the second week until the desired intake, as prescribed, is eaten. Supplying animal’s supplements or semi adlib feed in the form of a pellets or self-mix recipes in large multi specie camps, hunting camps and game reserves, where it is impossible to follow the above mentioned suggestions. Place the feed in the bowls every 2 to 3 days. • This will prevent any one animal from staying at the feeding sight day after day, eating their belly full for a few days in a row, preventing possible rumen disorders Semi adlib feeds • When feeding animals semi adlib feed diets in the form of pellets; care must be taken when doing so. Supplying an animal with 2/3rds of their total daily feed intake should be done gradually, over a period of a few weeks allowing their rumen microbes time to adapt to the pelleted ration. • The reason for this;