of the SAVA
and ischemic necrosis in conjunction with the
demonstration of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic, viral
inclusion bodies in keratinocytes of the epidermis
and follicular epithelium as well as macrophages,
endothelial cells, pericytes, acinar and ductal
epithelial cells of the mucous and serous glands, and
skeletal and smooth muscle cells.
Immunohistochemistry enables detection of
LSDV within histological sections and facilitates
demonstration of the virus within histological lesions
enabling definitive confirmation of the diagnosis
(figure 3 and figure 4).
Figure 4: Springbok skin – Lumpy skin disease IHC staining.
Note the positive labelling of virus in sebaceous glands,
macrophages and smooth muscle cells (asterix)
Prevention and Control
The cornerstone of prevention and control in cattle
revolves around implementation of an effective
vaccination program. “Neethling” strain vaccines
as well as of live attenuated Sheeppox or goatpox
vaccines (utilizing cross protection), have effectively
been used to control LSD in cattle. There is currently
no data available for the use of these vaccines in
springbok. Vector control appears to have minimal
effect on preventing disease.
Figure 3: Springbok skin – Lumpy skin disease IHC stain. Note
the ballooning degeneration of the epidermis and follicular
epithelium with strong, dark brown positive labelling of viral
antigen including the intra-cytoplasmic inclusions in epidermal
and follicular keratinocytes, and dermal macrophages (arrows)
1. Coetzer JAW & Tuppurainen E. Lumpy Skin Disease. http://www.
2. World Organization for Animal Health (2017) – Manual of
Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris.
3. Jubb & Kennedy (2016). Pathology of Domestic Animals 6th edn.