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media was not used and an alternative had to be improvised. Ideally, blood culture bottles should be used for this purpose (e.g. VersaTREK® Redox blood culture bottles; Trek Diagnostic Systems, USA). There have only been two confirmed cases of anthrax in the entire Eastern Cape province since 1993, with the most recent having occurred in November 2011 in an area over 100 km east of the ranch discussed (DAFF; 2017). During this investigation, one could be forgiven for jumping to the conclusion of anthrax, based on the history of the disease in South Africa, the role of kudu in the ecology of the disease in other parts of the country, recent environmental conditions as well as translocation stress. The major disadvantage when using Diff-Quick is that it does not reveal the anthrax capsule as would have been possible with polychrome methylene blue (MacFadyean’s reaction) or Giemsa (De Vos & Turnbull; 2004). If the basic polychrome methylene blue stain had been used during the initial assessment, anthrax would have been rapidly ruled out and further investigations could have taken place in the field, with the implication of producing fresher, higher quality samples for disease diagnostics. This also would have avoided the risky movement of the carcass off the property. In an effort to reduce the length of the case study for Hooo Hooo, several parts were removed. For further details on the case, please contact the author. References Ahsani MR, Mohammadabadi MR & Shamsaddini MB. 2010. thrax. Available from: http://www.nda.agric.za/ vetweb/epidemiology/Disease%20Database/OIEData/ OIE_query_Criteria.asp (Accessed 05 June 2017) De Vos V. 1990. The ecology of anthrax in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 68S, 19-23. De Vos V & Turnbull PCB. 2004. Anthrax. In: Coetzer, J.A.W. & Tustin, R.C. Infectious Diseases of Livestock, Vol. 3, 3rd Ed. Oxford University Press Southern Africa. Pp 1788-1818 Hugh-Jones M & Blackburn J. 2009. The ecology of Bacil- lus anthracis. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 30 pp. 356–367. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2009.08.003 Kitshoff A. 2013. Economic Contribution: Hunting. Presented at the Hunting Indaba, The Ranch, Polokwane. 11 & 12 November 2013. Available from: https://www.environ- ment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/economic_contri- bution_ofhunting.pdf (Accessed 05 June 2017). MSD Animal Health. 2017. Clostridial Disease. Available from: http://www.msd-animal-health.ie/diseases/cattle/clostridial- disease/information.aspx. (Accessed 05 June 2017) Nyamugama A, Kakembo V. 2015. Monitoring land Cover Changes and Fragmentation dynamics in the subtropical thicket of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Geomatics, Vol 4(4) pp 397-413. South African Weather Service. 2017. Historical Rain Maps. Available online at: http://www.weathersa.co.za/climate/ historical-rain-maps (Accessed on 08 June 2017). Sigwela AM, Kerley GIH, Mills AJ & Cowling RM. (2009). The Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR. J impacts of browsing-induced degradation on the re- Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis. Vol16(4)pp 573-578. production of subtropical thicket canopy shrubs and Bengis R. 2013. A Review of Anthrax in Wildlife. Presented trees. South Africa Journal of Botany, (75), 262-267. at the SAVA Wildlife Group Congress, Pretoria 2013. Watermeyer JP, Carroll SL & Parker DM. 2015. Seasonal Braak & de Vos, 1990. Feeding habits and flight range of consumption of browse by the African buffalo (Syn- blowflies (Chrysomyia spp) in relation to anthrax trans- mission in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onder- stepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 57, 141-142 Clegg SB, Turnbull PCB, Foggin CM & Lindeque PM. 2007. Mas- cerus caffer) in the Thicket Biome of South Africa. Afr. J. Ecol., 53: 599–601. doi:10.1111/aje.12214 World Organisation for Animal Health. 2012. Anthrax. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terres- sive outbreak of anthrax in wildlife in the Malilangwe Wildlife trial Animals 2016. Available from: http://www.oie.int/ Reserve, Zimbabwe. Veterinary Record 160 pp. 113-118 en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/ DAFF. 2017. Query on Animal Diseases in the RSA. An- access-online/ (accessed 04 June 2017) (Chapter 2.1.1.) 2017 December 15