@Halal May/Jun 2020 - Page 16

16 Science Talk @Halal | MAY-JUNE. 2020 BY NOR AMIN HAZIQ Chairman,Global Haltech A HALAL analysis is done for the reason of ensuring it does not contain any haram source in the ingredients as well as finished products. Haram source here means any source coming from pork and its derivatives. This is the basic rule for any product to be certified as halal. Apart of halal certification, which involves a review of related document and audit done at the manufacturing area, halal analysis sometimes is needed for ingredients which are sent for halal certification is submitted without a halal certificate. The reason why DNA tests are allowed is that it is the most established method to trace animal originbased ingredients in the sample products. But bear in mind there are lots of ingredients or finished products in the market which do not contain DNA. This situation is not because there is no animal-based DNA, but the DNA may have degraded or deteriorated during the production process. Meaning the ingredients and finished products may contain animal-based, but because of complicated methods applied during manufacturing, the DNA in those items is damaged. When this happens, the lab report may not detect anything, and there would be no conclusion whether either the ingredients or finished product contain animal-based origins as well as porcine tracing. Heat applied at a higher temperature uses of certain chemicals, extreme pressure used during the manufacturing process can also damage DNA during manufacturing processes. If labs still proceed with DNA analysis for the sample which no longer has DNA in the item, the negative result is an actually false negative. Thus, can we still say DNA is the only solution for halal analysis? The honest answer is even though DNA method is the most established method and the only one allowed by authorities, we still need to think of alternative ways to trace porcine in the item in which the DNA no longer exists. In analysis practice, tracing of any animal origin-based or porcine-based sources for halal testing still can proceed using various types of method. In almost all cases, other animal-based markers are still in good condition to be selected as a porcine marker at the time the DNA is damage. Few labs have developed different methods for halal analysis such as tracing of polypeptide, triglycerides, antibody/antigen pairs, porcine uniqueness protein and so on. According to Fig 1, parameter testing for FIG 1 SOURCE: DRUG TARGET VIEW/DRUGTARGETREVIEW.COM Halal analysis: DNA is not the only solution There are lots of ingredients or finished products in the market which do not contain DNA Halal test can be divided into two authentication levels, screening and confirmation. Universities and research institutes usually use the screening level under the R&D phase towards getting the best markers or best methods for halal analysis. The technique used under the confirmation level is a reliable method. Scientific equipment used and process applied under confirmation level are RT-PCR for DNA test, LCMS/MS for polypeptide test and ELISA/Rapid Test Kit for antibody/antigen test. Thus, when we are facing a problem with sample receive to the lab with no more DNA contained, the alternative methods as mentioned above are useful. All those methods have been verified and undergo a validation process before proceeding as a valid method for halal analysis. Some of those methods even has been accredited ISO17025. Halvec lab, for example, has been accredited ISO17025 for Halal analysis and the parameter that has been listed under scope of analysis are DNA test and ELISA/ Rapid Test Kit. The decision that either DNA or other alternative method is the best for finished products received in the lab is based on the list of ingredients contained in the finished product. This would be identified by lab staff. In some instances, some of the finished products may require more than one test method as products may contain animal-based sources from different body parts of an animal. The table in Fig 2 can show the details. The details in the above table are not theories but happened for finished products received by labs for halal analysis. For some products received by Halvec Lab for halal study, the DNA method can’t be used to determine whether the products contain porcine-based sources or not. But when using ELISA method, the result is evident to prove that the finished product contains porcinebased sources. By choosing the appropriate manner, the halal or haram status of finished products can be clearly decided. Hence, it will give authorities higher confidence for the halal certification process. In the list of comparing testing methods used in Fig 3, products such as vaccine and Banana jelly gummy porcine are not detected when using DNA test method. In contrast,