The Kid ’ s Corner
Early years set the stage for all future development
Cognitive Development : Age 2
Says words , phrases and simple sentences , 272 words , understands simple directions , identifies simple pictures , likes to look at books , short attention span , avoids simple hazards , can do simple form board .
Says short sentences , 896 words , great growth in communication , tells simple stories , uses words as tools of thought , wants to understand environment , answers questions , imaginative , may recite few nursery rhymes .
Uses complete sentences , 1540 words , asks endless questions , learning to generalize , highly imaginative , dramatic , can draw recognizable simple objects .
2,072 words , tells long tales , carries out direction well , reads own name , counts to 10 , asks meaning of words , knows colors , beginning to know difference between fact and fiction – lying , interested in environment , city , stores , etc .
Cognitive development is defined as thinking , problem solving , concept understanding , information processing and overall intelligence . Many studies have been conducted to identify the stages of cognitive development that would be considered the norm at the various stages of childhood development . One of the more well known is The Theory of Cognitive Development , first developed by Jean Piaget .
Piaget proposed that there are four distinct , increasingly sophisticated stages of mental representation that children pass through on their way to an adult level of intelligence . He considered that children primarily learn through imitation and play throughout the first two stages ( birth-7 ) as they build up symbolic images through internalized activity .
By observing sequences of play , Piaget learned that during the second stage ( ages 2-7 ), children learn to use and represent objects by images , words , and drawings . The child is able to form stable concepts as well as mental reasoning and magical beliefs . The child however is still not able to perform operations ; tasks that the child can do mentally rather than physically . Thinking is still egocentric : The child has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others .
Around the age of two , a toddler will start to understand the relationship between objects . He ’ ll be able to match similar shapes , recognize the purpose of numbers in counting objects , and will develop an understanding of cause and effect . He will also feel everything that happens in his world is a result of something he has done . This is called the terrible two ’ s because reasoning with a twoyear-old is not easy . He will still confuse fantasy with reality unless actively playing make-believe .
At the age of three , questions will flow . Children want to know “ why .” Often the questions are those that you will not be able to answer such as “ why is there water in the ocean ” or “ why can ’ t I fly .” The three year old will encounter many learning challenges as her reasoning will still be one-sided . She will not be able to solve problems that require her to consider more than one factor at a time . Speaking of time , her sense of time will become much clearer and she will look for the mailman each day and wonder why the garbage man only comes once a week .
By the age of four , the child is beginning to explore many basic concepts that will be taught in greater depth in school . He understands that the day is divided into morning , afternoon and evening and that there are different seasons . Parents will want to respect his special interests and talents at this stage . If the child is very active and climbs on everything , take her / him to a children ’ s gymnastics class . This is the age that children should begin to enjoy learning so they will be self-motivated when it comes time to start Kindergarten .
Preschools play an important role in helping parents provide a stimulating setting for their toddlers . In Gilroy , GoKids provides a program that is literally “ child ’ s play ” — designed to support cognitive development through fun activities and problem solving . Their highly trained staff provides just the right amount of assistance without stifling a child ’ s creativity or interfering with their natural learning comfort level . The GoKids program philosophy includes their commitment to creating and maintaining high-quality programs for children that foster social , emotional , physical , and cognitive development while recognizing the importance of family , culture and the community .
Sources : American Academy of Pediatrics , Excerpts from Caring for Baby and Young Child : Birth to Age 5 ; American Medical Association , Medem . com ; The Theory of Cognitive Development by Jean Piaget ; GoKids Inc ./ gokids . org
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