GeminiFocus October 2018 | Page 17

Figure 2. Schematic of the GIRMOS instrument. Light from individual objects within the AO field is picked off by GIRMOS and corrected by an additional AO system before being fed into the IFS units. The IFS units offer larger fields of view for a given sampling scale when compared to existing IFSs. This offers up to ten times the multiplexing gain over existing AO spectrographs. Additionally, GIRMOS will be the first multi- object infrared integral field spectrograph to offer a high spectral resolution mode that enables key science not possible on exist- ing AO-fed spectrographs, particularly those relating to the chemodynamics of astro- nomical objects. This unique combination of multiplexing integral field spectrographs with high spatial and spectral resolution will make GIRMOS the forefront survey instru- ment for a broad range of topics in astro- nomical research. The primary scientific questions that will benefit greatly from the multiplexing capa- bilities of GIRMOS are: • Low- and high-mass star formation within the Milky Way • The search for intermediate-mass black hole formation in central regions of globu- lar clusters • The formation process of the Milky Way’s su- permassive black hole and its environment • The nature of optical, infrared, radio, and gravitational-wave transients • Relative roles of internal processes and en- vironment at the peak of galaxy formation • Galaxies, black holes, and globular cluster formation processes at “Cosmic Dawn” October 2018 • Ultra-high angular resolution studies of distant galaxies aided by gravitational lensing • Relationship between cold gas, star for- mation, and dynamics in galaxies at high redshift GIRMOS will also be a powerful scientific and technical pathfinder for the Thirty Me- ter Telescope’s (TMT) Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS), which will be a future second-generation instrument. While highly ranked scientifically, a number of potential hurdles were identified in the original IRMOS concepts for the TMT. MOAO, which critically relies on open-loop control, had not been demonstrated on-sky, and the overall cost of the AO system and the multiple spectro- graphs was prohibitive. These concerns led to IRMOS not being chosen as a first-light in- strument for the TMT. However, the landscape has now changed with MOAO successfully demonstrated on- sky through technical pathfinders such as RAVEN on Subaru, led by our team mem- bers, and infrared integral field spectro- graphs being well-established technology (e.g., Gemini’s Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer). Our efforts in developing GIRMOS will build the necessary scientific GeminiFocus 15