Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288) . Number 84, December 2008, pp. 1-18.

1 Amphibia Palaestina : The Amphibians of Palestine ‫برمائيات فلسطين‬ By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa “So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, and the blood (as a succession of) manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals / polytheists / sinners.” (The Noble Qur’an, Surah Al-A’raf, Al-Aya 133). Eight amphibian species have been recorded in Palestine: One newt species, one salamander species and five species of frogs and toads. Amphibians in Palestine belong to two orders; (i) Caudata; (ii) Salientia or Anura; six families: (i) Salamandridae; (ii) Bufonidae; (iii) Hylidae, (iv) Ranidae, (v) Pelobatidae, (vi) Discoglossidae; and seven genera, five of which are important wetland species. The most commonly seen in Palestine is the European Green Toad (Bufo viridis). The other species are: The Syrian or Eastern Spadefoot Toad (Pelobates syriacus), The Anatolian or Savigny's Tree Frog (Hyla savignyi), The Marsh or Lake Frog (Rana ridibunda), The Edible or Water Frog (Rana esculenta), and the extinct Palestinian or Hula Painted Frog (Discoglossus nigriventer) (Khalaf-von Jaffa, February 2007). The two other amphibians are: The endangered Near Eastern Fire Salamander (Salamandra maculosa infraimmaculata) and the rare Southern Banded Newt or Triton (Triturus vittatus). Below, Table 1 on Page 12, outlines the threatened amphibian species in Occupied Palestine and the Palestinian territories (West Bank and Gaza Strip). ORDER: CAUDATA (Salamanders and Newts) Family Salamandridae: 1. Near Eastern Fire Salamander or Arouss Al Ayn (Salamandra maculosa infraimmaculata, Martens 1885): The Arouss Al Ayn is a species of salamander in the Salamandridae family. The black yellow/orange colours are a warning colouratin. It is found in Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Gazelle – Number 84 – December 2008