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which include (1) huge meals that included
lots of meat, (2) heavy alcohol consumption and (3) obesity. Furthermore, Victorian attitudes about modesty precluded
British subjects in India from lounging
about in the 19th century equivalent of
shorts and tank-tops.
Weightman (2003) contends that “the
British community in Calcutta played a
big part in wiping out his coffee debt.”
Profits from Calcutta alone netted Tudor
about $220,000 in profits during his life.
Anderson, Oscar E. Refrigeration in America: A
History of a New Technology and Its Impact.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
Bean, Susan S. “Cold Mine.” American Heritage 42, 71. 1991.
Cummings, Richard O. The American Ice
Harvests; A Historical Study in Technology,
1800–1918. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, Berkeley, 1949.
Dickason, David G. “The Nineteenth-Century
Indo-American Ice Trade: An Hyperborean
Epic,” Modern Asian Studies 25, pp. 53–89.
Gardiner, Robert H. Early Recollections of Robert Hallowell Gardiner, 1782–1864. Hallowell, ME: White & Horne Company, 1936.
Cutting ice from a lake, circa early 20th century.
Dr. Dan Cooper is the president of Active
Learning Technologies. Brian Grinder
is a professor at Eastern Washington
University and a member of Financial
History’s editorial board.
A better answer would have been, “I
don’t know,” but MBA students, like most
people, will rarely admit that they don’t
Tudor had been sent to debtor’s prison
in 1809 and 1812. In the early years of his
ice venture, Tudor basically resorted to
sneaking in and out of Boston in order to
avoid being sent to debtor’s prison.
Had he thought of combining the two,
perhaps the first Starbucks would have
opened in Boston in the 1830s instead of
in Seattle in 1971.
Dickason (1991) lists several reasons for
British intolerance to the heat of India
Kistler, Linda H., Clairmont P. Carter, and
Brackston Hinchey. “Planning and Control
in the 19th Century Ice Trade,” The Accounting Historians Journal 11, pp. 19–30. 1984.
Pearson, Henry G. “Frederic Tudor, Ice Kin