Exploration Insights September 2019 | Page 14

14 | Halliburton Landmark available paleomagnetic data, while also being consistent with known hotspot tracks and accounting for inferred periods of true polar wander. The detail of the relative position between plates is resolved by integrating geological data from the Neftex portfolio, such as oceanic magnetic isochrones, geochronology (hard rock and detrital), mineral deposits, biostratigraphy, sedimentary sequences, seismic, orogenic events, sutures, and geophysical data. A global geodynamic scenario can be established between key assemblies, which ensures that all plates and their boundaries evolve in a consistent manner, respecting geometrical rules and accepted limits for plate velocities. This approach, termed “dynamic plate boundaries” (Hochard, 2008) or “dual control” (Verard, 2015; 2018), guaranties the geometrical validity of a plate model. In this instance, our model reflects more closely the theory of plate tectonics as developed by McKenzie, as opposed to pure continental drift. Holistic Earth: Greater Understanding and Better Predictions The recent advances in geoprocessing and big data analytics have allowed us to add the third dimension (depth/altitude) to plate tectonic models and paleogeographic maps, through paleo-digital elevation and paleo-bathymetric models. These new detailed models are critical inputs to generate source-to-sink studies and climate models. The outputs of these models, and derived predictions, have significant benefits to the oil and gas industry. For example, the applications of source-to-sink methods over an accurate plate model representation and combined with detrital geochronology datasets allows one to discriminate on the provenance of clastic sediments and, thus, make better-informed predictions on reservoir quality. On the other hand, the reconstitution of paleo-climates enables the prediction of the formation and occurrence of source rocks and tropical carbonate reservoirs, for example. Plate tectonics continues to be an intense subject of research and development for the geoscience community, as a whole. There Exploration Insights | 15 is still a long way to go in improving model accuracies, pushing plate tectonics further back into deep time (Precambrian tectonics), understanding how and when plate tectonic activity started on Earth, or even on other planets (e.g. Venus), and appreciating the respective contributions of the different forces driving plate tectonics. This will help build our knowledge of the interactions at the internal boundaries of the Earth, linking their effects on plate motions, and ultimately on the whole Earth system to influence climatic and eustatic variations and their sedimentary response. REFERENCES Conrad, C.P. 2013. The solid Earth’s influence on sea level. GSA - Bulletin, v. 125, no. 7-8, p. 1027-1052. (XURBB_553528). Hochard, C. 2008. GIS and Geodatabases Application to Global Scale Plate Tectonics Modelling. Institut de Geologie et Paleontologie, Universite de Lausanne, Switzerland. (XURBB_465123). Mckenzie, D.P. 1966. The viscosity of the lower mantle. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 71, no. 16, p. 3995-4010. (XURBB_641556). Mckenzie, D.P. and R.L. Parker 1967. The North Pacific: an Example of Tectonics on a Sphere. Nature, v. 216, no. 5122, p. 1276-1280. (XURBB_641560). Muller, R.D., J-Y Royer and L.A. Lawyer 1993. Revised plate motions relative to the hotspots from combined Atlantic and Indian Ocean hotspot tracks. Geology, v. 21, no. 3, p. 275-278. (XURBB_469480). Scotese, C.R. and D.W. Baker 1975. Continental Drift Reconstructions and Animation. Journal of Geological Education. Taylor and Francis Group, p. 167-171. (XURBB_641561). Scotese, C.R. 1976. A continental drift ‘flip book’. Computers and Geosciences, v. 2, no. 1, p. 113-116. (XURBB_641562). Simmons, M.D. 2015. Great Geologists.Halliburton, Houston, Tx, 1-140p. (XURBB_641599). Stampfli, G.M. and G.D. Borel 2002. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrons. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 196, no. 1-2, p. 17-33. (XURBB_463865). Torsvik, T.H. 2019. Earth History: A journey in time and space from the base to top. Teconophysics, v. 760, p. 297-313. (XURBB_641633). Vérard, C., C. Hochard, P.O. Baumgartner, G.M. Stampfli and M. Liu 2015. Geodynamic evolution of the Earth over the Phanerozoic: Plate tectonic activity and palaeoclimatic indicators. Journal of Palaeogeography, v. 4, no. 2, p. 167-188. (XURBB_641563). Vérard, C. 2018. Plate tectonic modelling: review and perspectives. Geological Magazine, v. 156, no. 2, p. 208-241. (XURBB_641553). Vine, F.J. and D.H. Matthews 1963. Magnetic Anomalies Over Oceanic Ridges. Nature, v. 199, no. 4897, p. 947-949. (XURBB_641555). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to Mike Simmons and Rebecca Head for the useful comments and the editorial work. Thanks to all our colleagues who have contributed to the continuous improvement of our plate model over the years. AUTHORS Jean-Christophe Wrobel-Daveau, Senior Geoscientist — Structural Geology Advisor, Halliburton Landmark Jean-Christophe is a subject matter expert on complex geology and structural modeling. He has 12 years of industry experience in play- based hydrocarbon exploration, specializing in plate tectonics and building structurally valid subsurface models, with three years spent leading the team of plate modelers at Neftex ® Insights. Jean-Christophe holds an MSc degree in geochemistry and cosmonucleids dating methods from the University of Grenoble, France, and a PhD in structural geology and detrital thermochronology from Cergy-Pontoise University, France/Total SA). Graeme Nicoll, Senior Geoscientist — Solution Owner Source-to-Sink, Halliburton Landmark After post-doctoral work in geochronology and basin dynamics at Edinburgh University, and an industry consultancy role looking at North Atlantic crustal evolution, Graeme joined Neftex in 2012 and developed our Mineral Deposit and Geochronology datasets, and their subsequent integration into supporting Plate Modeling and Gross Depositional Environment mapping. Since 2017, he has led our Source-to-Sink and Geochronology teams. He holds a PhD degree from Trinity College Dublin. DISCLAIMER This article is a synthesis based upon published data and information, and derived knowledge created within Halliburton. Unless explicitly stated otherwise, no proprietary client data has been used in its preparation. If client data has been used, permission will have been obtained and is acknowledged. Reproduction of any copyrighted image is with the permission of the copyright holder and is acknowledged. The opinions found in the articles may not necessarily reflect the views and/or opinions of Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. and its affiliates including but not limited to Landmark Graphics Corporation. Watch our talks during the PESGB/HGS African E&P Conference on October 1–2 in London, U.K. Tuesday October 1, 12:55 — Thomas Butt will present, 4D Temperature Modeling of Potential Biogenic Gas Fairways in the Eastern Mediterranean Wednesday October 2, 09:25 — Sigrún Stanton will present, Egypt’s Red Sea: Overlooked Potential in a Young Rift Basin? To find out more visit https://africa.pesgb.org.uk Exploration Insights