CardioSource WorldNews - Page 39

REPATHA® (evolocumab) Table 2. Adverse Reactions Occurring in Greater than 1% of REPATHA-treated Patients and More Frequently than with Placebo in Pooled 12-Week Studies BRIEF SUMMARY OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION Please see package insert for full Prescribing Information 1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE 1.1 Primary Hyperlipidemia REPATHA is indicated as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), who require additional lowering of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). 1.2 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia REPATHA is indicated as an adjunct to diet and other LDL-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, ezetimibe, LDL apheresis) for the treatment of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) who require additional lowering of LDL-C. 1.3 Limitations of Use The effect of REPATHA on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined. 4. CONTRAINDICATIONS REPATHA is contraindicated in patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to REPATHA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS 5.1 Allergic Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., rash, urticaria) have been reported in patients treated with REPATHA, including some that led to discontinuation of therapy. If signs or symptoms of serious allergic reactions occur, discontinue treatment with REPATHA, treat according to the standard of care, and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve. 6. ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the label: • Allergic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Adverse Reactions in Patients with Primary Hyperlipidemia and in Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia REPATHA is not indicated for use in patients without familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic CVD [see Indications and Usage (1.1)]. The data described below reflect exposure to REPATHA in 8 placebocontrolled trials that included 2651 patients treated with REPATHA, including 557 exposed for 6 months and 515 exposed for 1 year (median treatment duration of 12 weeks). The mean age of the population was 57 years, 49% of the population were women, 85% White, 6% Black, 8% Asians, and 2% other races. Adverse Reactions in a 52-Week Controlled Trial In a 52-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (Study 2), 599 patients received 420 mg of REPATHA subcutaneously once monthly [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The mean age was 56 years (range: 22 to 75 years), 23% were older than 65 years, 52% women, 80% White, 8% Black, 6% Asian, and 6% Hispanic. Adverse reactions reported in at least 3% of REPATHA-treated patients, and more frequently than in placebo-treated patients in Study 2, are shown in Table 1. Adverse reactions led to discontinuation of treatment in 2.2% of REPATHA-treated patients and 1% of placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reaction that led to REPATHA treatment discontinuation and occurred at a rate greater than placebo was myalgia (0.3% versus 0% for REPATHA and placebo, respectively). Table 1. Adverse Reactions Occurring in Greater than or Equal to 3% of REPATHA-treated Patients and More Frequently than with Placebo in Study 2 Nasopharyngitis Upper respiratory tract infection Influenza Back pain Injection site reactions† Cough Urinary tract infection Sinusitis Headache Myalgia Dizziness Musculoskeletal pain Hypertension Diarrhea Gastroenteritis Placebo (N=302) % REPATHA (N=599) % 9.6 6.3 6.3 5.6 5.0 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.0 2.6 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.0 10.5 9.3 7.5 6.2 5.7 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.0 includes erythema, pain, bruising Adverse Reactions in Seven Pooled 12-Week Controlled Trials In seven pooled 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled trials, 993 patients received 140 mg of REPATHA subcutaneously every 2 weeks and 1059 patients received 420 mg of REPATHA subcutaneously monthly. The mean age was 57 years (range: 18 to 80 years), 29% were older than 65 years, 49% women, 85% White, 5% Black, 9% Asian, and 5% Hispanic. Adverse reactions reported in at least 1% of REPATHA-treated patients, and more frequently than in placebo-treated patients, are shown in Table 2. † Nasopharyngitis Back pain Upper respiratory tract infection Arthralgia Nausea Fatigue Muscle spasms Urinary tract infection Cough Influenza Con tusion Placebo (N=1224) % REPATHA† (N=2052) % 3.9 2.2 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.7 1.1 0.5 4.0 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly combined Adverse Reactions in Eight Pooled Controlled Trials (Seven 12-Week Trials and One 52-Week Trial) The adverse reactions described below are from a pool of the 52week trial (Study 2) and seven 12-week trials. The mean and median exposure durations of REPATHA in this pool of eight trials were 20 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Local Injection Site Reactions Injection site reactions occurred in 3.2% and 3.0% of REPATHA-treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively. The most common injection site reactions were erythema, pain, and bruising. The proportions of patients who discontinued treatment due to local injection site reactions in REPATHA-treated patients and placebo-treated patients were 0.1% and 0%, respectively. Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions occurred in 5.1% and 4.7% of REPATHA-treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively. The most common allergic reactions were rash (1.0% versus 0.5% for REPATHA and placebo, respectively), eczema (0.4% versus 0.2%), erythema (0.4% versus 0.2%), and urticaria (0.4% versus 0.1%). Neurocognitive Events In placebo-controlled trials, neurocognitive events were reported in less than or equal to 0.2% in REPATHA-treated and placebo-treated patients. Low LDL-C Levels In a pool of placebo- and active-controlled trials, as well as open-label extension studies that followed them, a total of 1988 patients treated with REPATHA had at least one LDL-C value < 25 mg/dL. Changes to background lipid-altering therapy were not made in response to low LDL-C values, and REPATHA dosing was not modified or interrupted on this basis. Although adverse consequences of very low LDL-C were not identified in these trials, the long-term effects of very low levels of LDL-C induced by REPATHA are unknown. Musculoskeletal Events Musculoskeletal adverse reactions were reported in 14.3% of REPATHAtreated patients and 12.8% of placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions that occurred at a rate greater than placebo were back pain (3.2% versus 2.9% for REPATHA and placebo, respectively), arthralgia (2.3% versus 2.2%), and myalgia (2.0% versus 1.8%). Adverse Reactions in Patients with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia In a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 49 patients with HoFH (Study 4), 33 patients received 420 mg of REPATHA subcutaneously once monthly [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. The mean age was 31 years (range: 13 to 57 years), 49% were women, 90% White, 4% Asian, and 6% other. The adverse reactions that occurred in at least two (6.1%) REPATHA-treated patients, and more frequently than in placebo-treated patients, included: • Upper respiratory tract infection (9.1% versus 6.3%) • Influenza (9.1% versus 0%) • Gastroenteritis (6.1% versus 0%) • Nasopharyngitis (6.1% versus 0%) 6.2 Immunogenicity As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of REPATHA has been evaluated using an electrochemiluminescent bridging screening immunoassay for the detection of binding anti-drug antibodies. For patients whose sera tested positive in the screening immunoassay, an in vitro biological assay was performed to detect neutralizing antibodies. In a pool of placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials, 0.1% of patients treated with at least one dose of REPATHA tested positive for binding antibody development. Patients whose sera tested positive for binding antibodies were further evaluated for neutralizing antibodies; none of the patients tested positive for neutralizing antibodies. There was no evidence that the presence of anti-drug binding antibodies impacted the pharmacokinetic profile, clinical response, or safety of REPATHA, but the long-term consequences of continuing REPATHA treatment in the presence of anti-drug binding antibodies are unknown. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to REPATHA with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading. 8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no data available on use of REPATHA in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, there were no effects on pregnancy or neonatal/infant development when monkeys were subcutaneously administered evolocumab from organogenesis through parturition at dose exposures up to 12 times the exposure at the maximum recommended human dose of 420 mg every month. In a similar study with another drug in the PCSK9 inhibitor antibody class, humoral immune suppression was observed in infant monkeys exposed to that drug in utero at all doses. The exposures where immune suppression occurred in infant monkeys were greater than those expected clinically. No assessment for immune suppression † was conducted with evolocumab in infant monkeys. Measurable evolocumab serum concentrations were observed in the infant monkeys at birth at comparable levels to maternal serum, indicating that evolocumab, like other IgG antibodies, crosses the placental barrier. FDA’s experience with monoclonal antibodies in humans indicates that they are unlikely to cross the placenta in the first trimester; however, they are likely to cross the placenta in increasing amounts in the second and third trimester. Consider the benefits and risks of REPATHA and possible risks to the fetus before prescribing REPATHA to pregnant women. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Data Animal Data In cynomolgus monkeys, no effects on embryo-fetal or postnatal development (up to 6 months of age) were observed when evolocumab was dosed during organogenesis to parturition at 50 mg/kg once every 2 weeks by the subcutaneous route at exposures 30- and 12-fold the recommended human doses of 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly, respectively, based on plasma AUC. No test of humoral immunity in infant monkeys was conducted with evolocumab. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of evolocumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for REPATHA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from REPATHA or from the underlying maternal condition. Human IgG is present in human milk, but published data suggest that breast milk antibodies do not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of REPATHA in combination with diet and other LDL-C-lowering therapies in adolescents with HoFH who require additional lowering of LDL-C were established based on data from a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial that included 10 adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years old) with HoFH [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. In this trial, 7 adolescents received REPATHA 420 mg subcutaneously once monthly and 3 adolescents received placebo. The effect of REPATHA on LDL-C was generally similar to that observed among adult patients with HoFH. Including experience from open-label, uncontrolled studies, a total of 14 adolescents with HoFH have been treated with REPATHA, with a median exposure duration of 9 months. The safety profile of REPATHA in these adolescents was similar to that described for adult patients with HoFH. The safety and effectiveness of REPATHA have not been established in pediatric patients with HoFH who are younger than 13 years old. The safety and effectiveness of REPATHA have not been established in pediatric patients with primary hyperlipidemia or HeFH. 8.5 Geriatric Use In controlled studies, 1420 patients treated with REPATHA were ≥ 65 years old and 171 were ≥ 75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. 8.6 Renal Impairment No dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. No data are available in patients with severe renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A or B). No data are available in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 13. NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility The carcinogenic potential of evolocumab was evaluated in a lifetime study conducted in the hamster at dose levels of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg administered every 2 weeks. There were no evolocumab-related tumors at the highest dose at systemic exposures up to 38- and 15-fold the recommended human doses of 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly, respectively, based on plasma AUC. The mutagenic potential of evolocumab has not been evaluated; however, monoclonal antibodies are not expected to alter DNA or chromosomes. There were no adverse effects on fertility (including estrous cycling, sperm analysis, mating performance, and embryonic development) at the highest dose in a fertility and early embryonic developmental toxicology study in hamsters when evolocumab was subcutaneously administered at 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The highest dose tested corresponds to systemic exposures up to 30- and 12-fold the recommended human doses of 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly, respectively, based on plasma AUC. In addition, there were no adverse evolocumab-related effects on surrogate markers of fertility (reproductive organ histopathology, menstrual cycling, or sperm parameters) in a 6-month chronic toxicology study in sexually mature monkeys subcutaneously administered evolocumab at 3, 30, and 300 mg/kg once weekly. The highest dose tested corresponds to 744- and 300-fold the recommended human doses of 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly, respectively, based on plasma AUC. 13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology During a 3-month toxicology study of 10 and 100 mg/kg once every 2 weeks evolocumab in combination with 5 mg/kg once daily rosuvastatin in adult monkeys, there were no effects of evolocumab on the humoral immune response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) after 1 to 2 months exposure. The highest dose tested corresponds to exposures 54- and 21-fold higher than the recommended human doses of 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly, respectively, based on plasma AUC. Similarly, there were no effects of evolocumab on the humoral immune response to KLH (after 3 to 4 months exposure) in a 6-month study in cynomolgus monkeys at dose levels up to 300 mg/kg once weekly evolocumab corresponding to exposures 744- and 300-fold greater than the recommended human doses of 140 mg every 2 weeks and 420 mg once monthly, respectively, based on plasma AUC. This Brief Summary is based on the REPATHA® Prescribing Information v3, 07/16 REPATHA® (evolocumab) Manufactured by: Amgen Inc. One Amgen Center Drive Thousand Oaks, California 91320-1799 U.S. License Number 1080 Patent: http://pat.amgen.com/repatha/ © 2016 Amgen Inc. All rights reserved. Not for reproduction. USA-145-110655(1), v3 07/16