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award in mathematics. Recently Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002.

In chemistry Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, that is the main framework of the modern chemistry, while Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure, playing a central role in organic chemistry. Nikolay Semyonov made major contributions to explanation of the mechanism of chemical transformation (1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry).

The Russian physics school began to develop after Lomonosov. During the period of origin of electrodynamics Vasily Petrov discovered the electric arc effect in 1802 and Heinrich Lenz discovered an important law named in his honor. Nikolay Umov discovered a fundamental concept

of Umov-Poynting vector and was the first scientist to indicate interrelation between mass and energy proposing the formula E = kmc as early as in 1873. Alexander Popov was among the inventors of radio. Russian/Soviet physics in the 20th century was one of leading ones in the world. Nikolay Bogolyubov suggested a triplet quark model, introduced a new quantum degree of freedom (later called as color charge) for quarks and formulated a microscopic theory of superconductivity. Lev Landau made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of lasers and masers. Igor Tamm, Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich developed the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion and created its first prototype, which finally led to the modern ITER project. Yevgeny Zavoisky discovered electron paramagnetic resonance playing important role in studying chemical species.

In biology Dmitry Ivanovsky was the first scientist to discover viruses (1892). Ivan Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon of classical conditioning. Ilya Mechnikov was a pioneer in investigations of the immune system (1908, Nobel Prize in Medicine).

In computing sciences the first ternary computer Setun was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov, together with Sergei Sobolev, in 1958 and Sergei Lebedev developed one of the first universally programmable computers in continental Europe in 1950, MESM.

Nikolay Benardos introduced the arc welding, further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov, Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov invented

Ostankino TV Tower in Moscow, completed in 1967 on the 50th anniversary of the October revolution. 540 metre high, it was the world's tallest free-standing structure at that time.