APPInep e-newsletter_Autumn_2018 APPInep e-Newsletter 12.7 - Page 3

not yet acquired a generative capacity, but relies This focus on orality results in a number of other upon specificities. a repertoire of words and formulaic expressions’ (2018: 46). Specificity 3: Second language acquisition contexts Grade CEFR level Grade 3 Pre-A1 With two hours (often in reality 90 minutes) of Grade 4 A1 language classes, for language acquisition to even Grade 5 A1+ begin to take place a number of requisites need to Grade 6 A2 be in place. Tomlinson (2013: 12-15) highlights the Table 1: Extended version of CEFR descriptors (Council of Europe, 2018) of several facilitators to second language (L2) acquisition: An example of a pre-A1 descriptor for Overall Listening Comprehension is, everyday familiar provided words, relevance ‘Can recognise they are delivered clearly and slowly in a clearly defined, familiar, everyday context’, which fits with the Metas Curriculares de Inglês (Cravo, Bravo & Duarte, 2015) for Grade 3: ‘Compreender palavras e expressões simples’ and the respective list of situations (p. 9), despite the omission of ‘… articuladas de forma clara e pausada’ (p. 14), which appears in Grade 4 only (seen here as an oversight). Specificity 2: The priority given to orality The CEFR guides the National Language Learning Standards (Metas Curriculares) in all grades and this requires a focus on five skill areas (listening, reading, spoken interaction and production and writing) as well as two domains (intercultural/ lexis and grammar). Nevertheless, the standards clearly state the relevance of oral skills in Grades 3 and 4: Os domínios de referência definidos, para cada ano, na disciplina de Inglês, traduzem a visão de uma aprendizagem da língua estrangeira que, neste ciclo de ensino em particular, privilegia a oralidade. É uma aprendizagem que se consolida de forma gradual, partindo da compreensão oral e da repetição, para as situações simples de interação e de expressão em articulação com a leitura e a escrita. (p. 3). 1) Exposure to rich meaningful language - in primary contexts routines are extremely important in enabling this exposure (Dias & Mourão, 2005). 2) Activities which require both an affective and cognitive engagement – these include activities which use memorizing, elimination, hypothesising etc. Many game-like activities allow for these skills and, as they are enjoyable, they lead to an affective engagement with the language (and often the teacher). 3) Noticing how the L2 is used, or ‘experiential discovery’ (p. 13) - Cameron (2001) alerts us to the relevance of moving from discourse to grammar using English for routines, classroom management etc, but also to set up activities which make language explicit enough to be noticed by the learners. 4) Engaging in contextualised and purposeful L2 communication – opportunities to find out information for real include using peers as sources of information. Activities like surveys, true/false statements etc. Wherever there is a gap in information there is purposeful communication. 5) Interacting with others in the L2 – pair work and group work are all acknowledged in