журнал ARTCARPET ArtCarpet #6 2021 ENG - Page 40

We do not study the complex issue of the genesis and evolution of Tatar carpet weaving , leaving aside well-developed labour process terminology : “ We remove spring wool from cattle , spin , dye , dry , roll into a ball and wind on a shuttle kaltyrgi . During 15 days we weave a trilingual carpet for one bed . The working season is spring , winter . In summer there is a lot of field work ” 7 . “ The loom is made of pine or linden . It is easy to carry . Vertical warps capture every thrown stitch . Each stitch fits into a pattern ... The reed-vylych squeezes them into a single canvas ” 8 .
Let us consider basic terms , loom structure and semantics of the patterns , comparing Tatar plastic folklore of the pre-Islamic period with the works of ritual cult .
Firstly , this is Tatar loom ( in the scientific ethnographic literature stan , and in folklore kinder uryny ( the place of hemp , flax , weaving ) and sovereignly kusha ). Derived from the steppe mobile mills , Tatar kusha , along with the outboard G-shaped variations , had stationary options : the motor part of the unit from kylych ( reed ), kere ( nitchenki ), tabalderek ( pedal ) was attached to the ceiling of the room . Tatar women usually weave palases and kelems without a sus ( shuttle ), twisting threads with their fingers .
Kelem . Slit-Tapestry weaving . Second half of the XIX century from Kaz .
Ile Arskiy district of the Republic of Tatarstan
steps in carpets , woven baskychlap , are also close to rows of multicoloured miniature triangles of a saddle cloth from another Pazyryk mound . The last two fragments were attributed by S . I . Rudenko to items of Near Asian origin .
Tatar Kelems are close to the items of the Bashkirs , Kazakhs , including flat-weave carpets of the Arabi type . The main shaping medallions are connected with the carpets of the Oguz Turkmen . They contacted with the Volga Tatars and who played a role in the formation of the Tatar nation in the XII-XIV centuries 5 .
A similar , but later ( in the XX century ) carpet weaving in the asalapsugu technique was found among the Chuvash and southern Udmurts ( Finno- Ugric ). With the help of the Bulgaro-Tatars , the technology of flat-weave creativity penetrated to the Russians , Finno-Ugric peoples , and possibly to Eastern Europe 6 .
It is interesting to observe tibia bones of a goose ( sometimes duck , and the Chuvashs used chicken ) kaztergese in the loom , used for tension of ropes ( seyak bava ), coming from the pedal through nitchenki ( kere ) and reed ( kylych ) to cross beam or ceiling 9 . The entire construction of the loom made archaic sounds , like actions of a spirit medium calling for spirits ( fareshta ).
The goose bone was easily replaced with wooden parts , as in some modernized looms . Its presence is explained by the conservatism of folk art and the protective nature of the bones , dating back to ancient cosmogonic views . In the Altai myth , the Earth was generated by the good spirit Ulgen , represented in the form of a goose or a duck , which carried a lump of earth from the bottom of the sea , where the earth was formed 10 . The images of the goose and duck among the Tatars are the main fundamental mythological symbols . “ A pearl duck ”, which was the demiurge , pulled out from the bottom of the sea a miraculous clod of earth , the beginning of life . The loom with hung parts and incessant rhythm of the pedals resembled the structure of a bird that produced the world primary egg , which was the Earth . In this sense , the shell-protected core of the rhombus is not just a umyrtka ( spine ), but the basis of the world yomyrka ( egg ), the axis of the Universe .