журнал ARTCARPET ArtCarpet #6 2021 ENG - Page 31

ANTIQUE CARPETS
A Part of the presented carpets from the collection of Dana Erik , Researcher of Kazakh carpets
On the territory of Turkey , carpet weaving has developed since the XI century with the arrival of the Turkic-Oguz tribes . One of the oldest centres of carpet weaving was the city of Konya , the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate . Geometric ornamentation preserved in Kazakh carpets can be traced in ancient Konyan carpets .
Among all types of Turkish or so-called Anatolian carpets from the period of the Ottoman Empire , there is a single source of origin from the Turkic tribes that once emerged from the territory of Kazakhstan . Despite the influence of other peoples , Anatolian carpets have the unchanged Kazakh kul , border , medallions and a double knot of weaving . The oldest carpet was found in the Pazyryk burial mound in Altai .
The Turkic-Oguz tribes have inhabited the territories of Kazakhstan , Altai and Mongolia since ancient times . During the Great Migration of Peoples in the IV-VII centuries , the Oguzes migrated to the Semirechye , then to Western Kazakhstan , where in the X century they formed a powerful union of tribes . They travelled to Minor Asia , gradually conquering Iran , Byzantium and almost the entire Arab world , founding the Seljuk and in the XIII century Ottoman Empire . The Oguzes brought the influence of nomadic culture , including carpet weaving , which became the personification of Ottoman Turkish culture .
Anatolian Yuryuk carpets are named after Yuryuk Oguz tribe . Coming with the Seljuks , they became the basis of Kony , then Ottoman rulers ’ power .
Oguz clans participated in the formation of both the Turkish and the Turkmen and Kazakh ethnic groups . A large Kazakh tribal association , adai , which is characterized by geometric ornaments , as for the nearby population of Turkmenistan , was formed . Some Kazakh tribes and clans belong to the Oguzes , among them there is the Teke . In Turkmenistan , the teke was the largest ethnic group and gave the name to the carpet , which is similar in ornamentation to Kazakh carpet .
A single ethnic culture of nomads was divided and developed in different styles of ornamentalism . In Ottoman art , the Rumi style was developed , based on a floral and animal motif , but the main one was the pattern of a tulip , a steppe flower . The Seljuks used the tulip ornament as a personal brand , repeating it many times , as if expressing regret for the nomadic territories of their ancestral home .
Today , there is a question about the restoration of Kazakh carpet ’ s primogeniture as an important element of the nomadic ethnoculture , which has a sacred meaning and has given the development of carpet weaving among other peoples .
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